the idea of evolution made it's way to the botanists. Erasmus Darwin
thoughts, published almost 100 years before in Zoonomia, or,
The Laws of Organic Life 1794-1796,
which were so
magnificently promoted by his grandson; Charles Darwin, gave a whole new
perspective to taxonomy, and it were change once again. The first to use
this thought were Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart in 1843, working with fossils,
which gave a good fundament for Eichler
in his system from 1875, but it took some years to become the main perspective.
August Wilhelm Eichler (Augustus
separate Phanerogamae in Angiosperms and Gymnosperms and Angiosperms again
in Monocotyledonae and Dicotyledonae. It was published in Blütendiagramme,
I-II:1875-1878. In 1883, divided the plant kingdom into non-floral plants (Cryptogamae)
and floral plants (Phanerogamae). His system is significant in the
perspective it is the first one in which the concept of Evolution. It is in
line with Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart's 1843 work.
Cryptogramae: Thallophyta, Bryophyta,
Phanaerogramae: Gymnosperms, Angioperms
August Wilhelm Eichler was born
in Neukirchen, Hesse, Germany. He studied at University of Marburg and
became professor of Botany in Technische Hochschule, Graz in 1871. In 1872 he
received an appointment at the University of Kiel, where he remained until 1878,
when he became director of the herbarium at the University of Berlin.
Detailed groups, based on Evolution. Non floral: Cryptogamae and floral: Phanerogamae.
Angiosperms and Gymnosperms.
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (Adolf Engler) (1844–1930) and
Karl Anton Eugen Prantl (1849-1893) made the Engler and Prantl or
Phylogenetic System, published in Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien
1887-1915, where the plants were sorted by the basis of complexity of floral
morphology. Characters like a perianth with one whorl, unisexual flowers and
pollination by wind were considered primitive as compared to perianth with
two whorls, bisexual flowers and pollination by insects. This was the first
major Phylogenetic Classification and that gave a slightly
changed August Wilhelm Eichler system. They dealt with the primitive
groups as well. It is in line with Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart's 1843
Engler's taxonomic work was also published in Das Pflanzenreich 1900-1968 and
Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien
1924. It contained more than Angiospermae; even green algae, which most
not include in Plantae, and it is still one of the most complete
works on all plants and related.
The Angiospermae part of the system was slightly changed
by H. Melchior in 1964, and after that, it contained 62 ordos with 343
Main groups in 1964:
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler was
born in Sagan, Prussia (now Żagań), Poland. He obtained his Ph.D.
from the University of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) in 1866, and
for some years. Then he became the custodian of botanical collections of the
Botanische Institute of Munich. In 1878, he got
professorship at the University of Kiel. In 1884, he went back to Breslau as
director of the Botanical Garden. From 1889 to 1921 he was professor at the
University of Berlin and director of the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden.
Many plants are named in his
honour, such as Englerastrum, Englerella, Engleria, Englerina, Englerocharis,
Englerodaphne, Englerodendron and Englerophytum.
Devided by the complexity of
floral morphologyIn. This was the first major Phylogenetic Classification. Made taxon on all plants and related.
Main groups in 1924
Divisio Chlorophyceae (Algae)
Divisio Embryophyta asiphonogama
Subdivisio Bryophyta (Moss)
Subdivisio Pteridophyta (Fern)
Divisio Embryophyta siphonogama
62 ordos with 343 families.
The full Taxon
of the Melchior 1964
Richard Wettstein (Ritter von
in Handbuch der systematischen Botanik from 1901-1935.
It counts 48 ordos with 315 families, including Gymnospermae. His new idea
is: Monocots evolved from Ranales. He also used the phylogenetic system.
Richard Wettstein was born in
Wien. He studied medicine and philosophy at the University of Vienna. He was
a Professor at the University of Prague from 1892, and at the University of
Vienna from 1899. He laid out the Botanical Garden of the University of
Monocots evolved from Ranales. Used the phylogenetic system.
classis Pteridospermae (fossil)
classis Benettitinae (fossil)
classis Cordaïtinae (fossil)
48 ordos with 315 families
The full Taxon
Charles Edwin Bessey (1845-1915)
with focus on the evolutionary divergence of primitive forms. The systems
based on various 28 guiding rules, or “dicta”, to determine level of being,
simple or advanced, of a group of plants. It is
considered by many as the system most likely to form the basis of a modern,
comprehensive taxonomy of the plant kingdom. It was published in The
phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering plants 1915. Here, he considered
Spermatophyta as having had polyphyletic origin, being composed by three
different phyla, of which he treated only Anthophyta. Full in line
with Richard Wettstein ideas.
Edwin Bessey was born in Milton Township, Wayne County, Ohio, USA. He
studied at Michigan Agricultural College, and become instructor in botany
and horticulture at Iowa College of Agriculture, where he becomes a full
professor. In 1884, he is appointed professor of botany at University of
Evolutionary divergence of primitive forms.
having had polyphyletic origin: three different phyla.
Classis Alternifoliae Monocotyledoneae
Classis Oppositifoliae Dicotyledoneae
Containing 15 ordos with a total of 146
The full Taxon
John Hutchinson's System was published in his two volumes:
Monocotyledonae in 1926, and
Dicotyledonae in 1934 (2nd edition 1959; 3rd edition, 1973). The
families of flowering plants, arranged
according to a new system based on their
probable phylogeny. It counts 328
families. It was a radical revision of the angiosperm classification
system devised by Bentham & Hooker and by Engler & Prantl.
John Hutchinson was born in
Blindburn, Wark on Tyne, Northumberland, England. Hutchinson worked at
the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew from he was appointed a student gardener
in 1904. He was appointed Keeper of the Museums of Botany at Kew
in 1936, where he worked until he retired in 1948, and started writing
He made two extended
collecting trips to South Africa, where he collected and described a
huge amount of plants.
Commemorated in the genus
Hutchinsonia by Robyns.
system based on their probable phylogeny.
115 ordo with 333 families
The full Taxon