With Augustus Quirinus Rivinus dividing by flowers, many new
groups were founded, and the systems got more complex. Species, family and
class had been introduced, now followed genera and order. Rudolf
Jacob Camerer idea of sex in plants made the way for Carl Linnaeus, which
binomial nomenclature and a good graphic display. Michel Adanson divided by
more characteristics than flowers, and created a great natural system. de
Jussieu brought it together.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
(1656-1708), who introduced an even
more sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species, used an
artificial system based on logical division which was widely used until Carl
Linnaeus. His first major work was Eléments de botanique, ou Méthode pour
reconnaître les Plantes from 1694. Here, he describes fungi and
puts lichen in a distinguish group, and his flower characters was
innovative. Further more, he made a clear distinction between genus and
species, and give descriptions of the genera. He used this method to classified the 7,000 plant species
into 700 genera, a work Carl Linnaeus had great help of.
Joseph Pitton de Tournefort
was born in Aix-en-Provence, France, and studied medicine at Montpellier,
but was appointed professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes in Paris in
Sophisticated hierarchy of class, section, genus, and species. The first to
give descriptions of the genera. Describes fungi and separates lichen. New way of describing flower
Rudolf Jacob Camerer (Camerarius) (1665-1721) Published a letter entitled
De sesu plantarum epistolaon in 1694, where he described how pistillate
flower form seeds. He were the first to present a clear and definite picture of sex
in plants. Camerarius based his conclusions on careful experiments and
observations, and described the stamen as the male organ and the ovary as
the female organ and emphasized their relationship to the formation of
seeds. This is a direct line to John Ray' work.
Camerer was born in
Tübingen, Germany. He became a professor at the Univercity of Tübingen in
1688, and was director of the botanic gardens.
Sex in plants.
Carl Linnaeus' system, published
in Species Plantarum 1753 was a toughly milestone in taxonomy, where
the binomial nomenclature were introduced. He abandoned the long descriptive
names of classes and orders and two-word generic names. Species Plantarum
presented a complete list of all the plant species known then, ordered for the
purpose of easy identification.
A plant's class was determined
by its stamens (male organs), and its order by its pistils (female organs). Even though only 11 of Linnaeus
families are in use to day, it was a solid ground for the coming taxonomy.
The down side by this was the groups seems "unnatural". For instance,
Linnaeus' Class Monoecia, Order Monadelphia included plants with separate
male and female "flowers" on the same plant (Monoecia) and with multiple
male organs joined onto one common base (Monadelphia). This order included
conifers such as pines, firs, and cypresses (the distinction between true
flowers and conifer cones was not clear), but also included a few true
flowering plants, such as the castor bean. "Plants" without obvious sex
organs were classified in the Class Cryptogamia, or "plants with a hidden
marriage," which lumped together the algae, lichens, fungi, mosses and other
bryophytes, and ferns.
The system contained 24 classes
(Greek numbers). The first 13 are divided on their equal long and separated
stamens, the next two by uneven length, five with stamens grown
together with them selves or the pistils, three classes with single sex
plants and one class with plants without flowers.
The force about this system is;
it is easy to classify a plant right away, when you find it - if it flowers. The downside
is; it may not necessarily be related to the other plants in that bigger
group. What has survived of the Linnaean
system is its method of hierarchical classification, a good graphic display and custom of binomial
Strangely enough, Carl Linnaeus
did not assume plants evolved, but that they were given by God. Despites
that, his grouping by their sexual organs lead to an grouping,
not that fare from modern DNA based evolutionary systematic.
Personally, I can't let go of
the thought Carl Linnaeus did have the thought of evolution, but being son of a
priest and living in those time let him keep those thoughts for him selves.
Even a hundred years later, the thought did not alien with other scientists
thoughts and good Christian fait.
Read more about Carl Linnaeus'
Binomial nomenclature. Divides by the male and female sexual
organs alone. Easy to use in the field.
The full Taxon
The next system was created by Michel Adanson (1727-1806). In Histoire naturelle du Senegal 1757, he bases
his system on shells. He founded his classification of all organized beings
on the consideration of each individual organ, and not only the flowers,
like Carl Linnaeus. As each organ gave birth to new relations, so he
established a corresponding number of arbitrary arrangements. Those beings
possessing the greatest number of similar organs were referred to one great
division, and the relationship was considered more remote in proportion to
the dissimilarity of organs. This made a much more natural system, than
In 1763, he published his
Familles naturelles des plantes, where he uses the multi-characteristic
system. The success of this work was hindered by its innovations in the use
of terms, which were ridiculed by the defenders of the popular sexual system
of Linnaeus. Never the less, his way of classification opened up for more
precise groupings, made by coming taxonomists. His systematic were inspired
by Joseph Pitton
de Tournefort's system from 1694. As a system, his work is brilliant, but his big mistake
was to refused to use the new binomial nomenclature. Never the less; it open
the way for the establishment, by means principally of Antoine Laurent de Jussieu's
Genera Plantarum (1789), of the natural method of the
classification of plants.
Michel Adanson was born at
Aix-en-Provence, Franc. He worked with Bernard de Jussieu, and
in the Jardin des Plantes. In 1748, he went on on an exploring expedition to
Senegal, where he remained for four years, describing plants and animals.
Some of the material he collected in Senegal were used in the creation of
his Histoire naturelle du Senegal from 1757.
In 1774 Adanson submitted to the
consideration of the French Academy of Sciences an immense work, extending
to all known beings and substances. It consisted of 27 large volumes of
manuscript, employed in displaying the general relations of all these
matters, and their distribution; 150 volumes more, occupied with the
alphabetical arrangement of 40,000 species; a vocabulary, containing 200,000
words, with their explanations; and a number of detached memoirs, 40,000
figures and 30,000 specimens of the three kingdoms of nature (animal, plant
, mineral). The committee
to which the inspection of this enormous mass was entrusted strongly
recommended Adanson to separate and publish all that was peculiarly his own,
leaving out what was merely compilation. He obstinately rejected this
advice; and the huge work, at which he continued to labour, was never
He never recovered financially
or mental over this blow, and his last years were lived in misery on a small
pension from the Academy of Sciences. He was without doubt the first Neo-Adansonian!
His work on the baobabs results
in the Adansonia commemorating Adanson.
by more characteristics than flowers. Created a great natural system. Uses the old names.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu
(1748–1836) and his uncle Bernard de Jussieu (1699-1777), also used a classification system that distinguishes
relationships between plants by considering a large number of characters,
generally invented by Michel Adanson in 1757, and combined it with Carl
Linnaeus' binomial nomenclature. In
Genera Plantarum secundum ordinesnaturalis disposita ,1789, they distinguished 15 classes and 100 families
(called Orders). 76 of his 100 families remain in botanical nomenclature today!
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu.
Antoine Laurent de Jussieu was
born in Lyon, France. He got his M.D. in Paris 1770, and
was professor of botany at the Jardin des Plantes from 1770 to 1826.
Bernard de Jussieu got his M.D.
at Montpellier and began practice in 1720. In 1722, he became the
sub-demonstrator of plants in the Jardin des Plantes. Their famous system
were basically made by the older Bernard, sorting out the plants in the
royal garden of the Trianon at Versailles in 1759.
characters; natural system. 76 remaining families! Adanson's system, Linnaeus' names.
Acotyledones (Fungi, Algae, Hepaticae, Musci, Filices, Najades)
Monocotyledones; three Classes
Monoclinae; one Class
Apetalae; three Classes
Monopetalae; four Classes
Polypetalae; three Classes
Diclinae; one Class
With 15 classes and 100 families