the general system used for the next 200 years were created. A small
change to Linnaeus' words: "God created, Linnaeus named, Adanson classified
and de Jussieus combined it". This system that lasted with small adjustments
until evolution became a factor. The following years only brought smaller
adjustments, but established the term Taxonomy, and got it in to a science.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle
(1778–1841) published his Principes élémentaires de botanique as
an a introduction to the third edition of Jean-Baptiste Lamarck's
Flore française 1803-1815. In 1813, he published his own Théorie
élémentaire de la botanique with 135 families (still called Order).
He wanted the system to be natural, like Adanson's, in opposed to the
artificial, Linnaean System.
In 1821 came the first two (and only)
volumes of Regni vegetabilis systema naturale. He tried to make it
less extensive, but only managed to make seven out of ten volumes of
Prodromus systemati naturalis regni vegetabilis sive enumeratio contracta
ordinum, generum specierumque plantarum huc usque cognitarum, juxta methodi
naturalis normas digesta, which were finished by his son: Alphonse Louis
Pierre Pyrame de Candolle (1806-1893) (See below), and his grandson: Anne Casimir
Pyrame de Candolle (1836-1918). It counts 161 families and 58000 species is
The Prodromus systematis naturalis regni vegetabilis
was intended to be a descriptive classification of all known seed
plants. Candolle's goal was not only to classify every known species, but
also to include ecology, evolution, and the biogeography of each. Candolle
was a pioneer in the field of biogeography, an idea Armen Takhtajan used in
His work counts the less
familiar groups, and remained the only systematic treatment available for some
plant groups for many years.
Augustin Pyramus de Candolle was
born in the Republic of Geneva (now Switzerland), he studied medicine and
natural history in Paris. He worked in many areas of botany, but the
system was his favourites; he even coined the term "taxonomy". He took
the degree of medicine in 1804 and in 1808 he was appointed Professor of
Botany and Director of the Botanic Garden at the University of Montpelier.
In 1817, he became professor of natural history at the University of Geneva,
and the director of the botanical gardens there, and established what is now
one of the world's largest herbarium.
Natural system with
Binomial nomenclature. Coined the term "taxonomy".
In 1829, John Lindley (1799-1865)
published his A Synopsis of British Flora, arranged according to the
Natural Order and the following year: An Introduction to the Natural
System of Botany. In 1833: Nixus plantarum.
1836: A natural system of botany. His The Vegetable Kingdom from 1846,
counts 278 families of flowering plants in it's third edition in 1853.
He became a pioneer Orchidologist, and much of his work concerns orchids. He
was a supporter of of the "natural" system, and was close to Augustin Pyramus
de Candolle ideas, build on Adansons system.
John Lindley was born in Catton,
near Norwich, England. He became assistant Secretary to the Royal
Horticultural Society in1822. He developed the society's Chiswick garden and
started a school of horticulture there, where he set up the first formal
horticultural examination. He organized the first flower shows in
England. Later, he became the first Professor of Botany at the University of
London 18291860 and Professor of Botany at Cambridge University.
system with Binomial nomenclature. Many new plants.
(1801-1876). Worked mainly with the relationships between extinct and
existing plants, and is known as "The father of paleobotany". In
Enumeration des genres de plantes cultivees au Musee d'Histoire Naturelle de
Paris in 1843, the first describtions of:
Ranunculopsida + Magnoliopsida is
published along with other major groups and families. It will take 150 years
before modern DNA testing confirm these groupings! He placed the Cycadeae
and Coniferae in the new group the gymnosperms.
Adolphe-Théodore Brongniart was
born in Paris, France. His first work on classification and distribution of
fossil plants was published when he was 21 years old. In 1826 he graduated
as doctor of medicine, and in 1831 he became assistant to R. L. Desfontaines
at the Musee d'Histoire Naturelle, and two years later succeeded him as
professor, a position which he continued to hold until his death in Paris on
the 8th of February 1876.
Used extinct plants to fill the
groups: Close to August Wilhelm Eichler 1875, see below/next
George Bentham (1800-1884) made a
system together with Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-1911) which were published
Genera plantarum ad
exemplaria imprimis in herbariis kewensibus servata definita
(1-3) 1862–1883. It consists of
Monocotyledones, with Series with a total of 25 Cohors with
119 families. It was a collection of generic descriptions taken from
original observation, and very complete and precise.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker was born
in Halesworth, Suffolk, England. He was son of the famous botanist Sir
William Jackson Hooker, and his interest in plants started early. He study
medicine at Glasgow University, and got his M.D. in 1839.
George Bentham was born in Stoke near Portsmouth. He had neither a school
nor a college education. He was a gifted young man, and when he got a copy
of of A. P. de Candolle’s Flore française, his interest was caught.
His first publication on the subject was Catalogue des plantes
indigènes des Pyrénées et du Bas Languedoc from 1826. Ten years
later; Labiatarum genera et species. Then followed
Commentationes de Leguminosarum generibus, and he frequently
wrote in Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis.
Bentham began with the Flora Hongkongensis in 1861, a
comprehensive work on any part of the little-known flora of China and Hong
Kong, including Hong Kong Croton. Then came Flora Australiensis,
in seven volumes (1863-1878), the first flora of any large continental area
that had ever been finished. His greatest work was the Genera
Plantarum, begun in 1862 and concluded in 1883 in collaboration with
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.
He joined the navy's polar
expedition under James Clark Ross on the world's last major voyage of
exploration made entirely under sail. The four year expedition lead
them bye Madeira, Tenerife, Santiago, Quail Island in the Cape Verde
archipelago, St Paul Rocks, Trinidade east of Brazil, St Helena, the Cape of
Good Hope, Crozet Islands, Crozet Islands, Kerguelen Islands, Hobart,
Van Diemen's Land, Auckland Islands, Campbell Island, Antarctica, Sydney,
Bay of Islands in New Zealand, Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego, Cockburn
Island and Ascension Island.
Hooker made plant collections at
each location and while travelling drew these and specimens of algae and sea
life pulled aboard using tow nets. His collections from the voyage
eventually formed one of two volumes published as the Flora Antarctica
1844–47 and Flora Novae-Zelandiae in 1851–53 and
Flora Tasmaniae, 1853–59.
Darwin who asked Hooker if he
would classify the plants that he had collected in the Galápagos.
In 1847 Hooker left England for
his 3 year long Himalayan expedition; he would be the first European to
collect plants in the Himalaya. They expedition was granted by his father,
the director og KEW. He went by ship, elephants and foot, and were several
His findings were published in Rhododendrons of Sikkim-Himalaya,1849–51,
Flora Indica in 1855 and
the Himalayan Journals
He also visit Palestine in 1860,
Morocco in1871, and the United States in 1877. In 1855 he was appointed
assistant-director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, and in 1865 he
succeeded his father as full director. He keep writing, and his greatest
botanical work was the Flora of British India, published in
seven volumes between 1872 and 1897.
Based on original observation.
Joseph Dalton Hooker
with SERIES with a total of 25 Cohors with
The full Taxon.
Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de
Candolle is most famous for his Lois de la nomenclature botanique
adoptées par le Congrès international de botanique tenu à Paris en août 1867;
the first Code of Botanical Nomenclature.
The ICBN is selves sets the
formal starting date of plant nomenclature at 1 May 1753, the publication of
Species Plantarum by Carl Linnaeus
Alphonse Louis Pierre Pyrame de
Candolle first devoted himself to the study of law, but gradually drifted to
botany and finally succeeded to his father's chair at the University of
Geneva. Among his other contributions is the creation of the first Code of
Botanical Nomenclature, adopted by the International Botanical Congress in
| First Code of
Botanical Nomenclature. (The latest; 2006)