TAXONOMY,
Angiosperm Classification according to Armen Takhtajan, 1966


This is Armen Leonovich Takhtajan's (Армен Левонович Тахтаджян) Angiosperm Classification from 1966. It treats flowering plants as as a division or phylum (Magnoliophyta) with two classes (monocots and dicots) which are organized into Subclasses. Higher level organization is similar to the Cronquist System, but a bit more complex. However, Takhtajan uses the Superorder as the basic unit of the Subclass and this pattern of organization is also used in the Thorne System of flowering plant classification.

More systems and the history behind.

Magnoliophyta Cronquist, Takht. & Zimmerm. ex Reveal (1996)
  1. Magnoliopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Aceropsida Endl. (1840)
                Aesculopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Aristolochiopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Asaropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Asclepidopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Asteropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Berberidopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Cactopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Campanulopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Caprifoliopsida Endl. (1838)
                Caryophyllopsida Bartl. (1825)
                Celastropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Cistopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Coffeopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Convolvulopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Crassulopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Crotonopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Cucurbitopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Daphnopsida Meisn. (1841)
                Diospyropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Ericopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Frangulopsida Endl. (1840)
                Geraniopsida Meisn. (1837)
                Hamamelidopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Hydropeltidopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Ligustropsida Bartl. ex Meisn. (1840)
                Loniceropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Loranthopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Malpighiopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Malvopsida R. Br. (1818)
                Myrsinopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Myrtopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Nelumbonopsida Endl. (1839)
                Nymphaeopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Oeotheropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Opuntiopsida Endl. (1839)
                Papaveropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Passifloropsida Brongn. (1843)
                Piperopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Plantaginopsida Meisn. (1841)
                Plumbaginopsida Endl. (1837)
                Polygalopsida Endl. (1840)
                Polygonopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Primulopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Proteopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Ranunculopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Rhamnopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Rosopsida Batsch (1788)
                Rubiopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Rutopsida A. Juss. ex Meisn. (1837)
                Salicopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Santalopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Saxifragopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Solanopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Styracopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Thymelaeopsida Endl. (1837)
                Urticopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Verbenopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Violopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Selaginopsida Brongn. (1843)
   1. Magnoliidae Novák ex Takht. (1967)
                Piperidae Reveal (1994)
    1. Magnolianae Takht. (1967)
     1. Magnoliales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Degeneriaceae I.W. Bailey & A.C. Sm., nom. cons. (1942)
       2. Himantandraceae Diels, nom. cons. (1917)
       3. Magnoliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Liriodendraceae F.A. Barkley (1975)
     2. Winterales A.C. Sm. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Winteraceae R. Br. ex Lindl., nom. cons. (1830)
                Takhtajaniaceae (J.-F. Leroy) J.-F. Leroy (1980)
     3. Canellales Cronquist (1957)
       1. Canellaceae Mart., nom. cons. (1832)
                Winteranaceae Warb., nom. illeg. (1895)
     4. Illiciales Hu ex Cronquist (1981)
       1. Illiciaceae (DC.) A.C. Sm., nom. cons. (1947)
       2. Schisandraceae Blume, nom. cons. (1830)
     5. Austrobaileyales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Austrobaileyaceae (Croizat) Croizat, nom. cons. (1943)
     6. Eupomatiales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Eupomatiaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1841)
     7. Annonales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Annonaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Hornschuchiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Monodoraceae J. Agardh (1858)
     8. Myristicales Thomé (1877)
       1. Myristicaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
     9. Aristolochiales Dumort. (1829)
                Asarales Horan. (1847)
       1. Aristolochiaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Asaraceae Vent. (1799)
    2. Lactoridanae Takht. (1997)
     1. Lactoridales Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Lactoridaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1888)
    3. Piperanae Reveal (1994)
     1. Piperales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Saururaceae Rich. ex E. Meyer, nom. cons. (1827)
       2. Piperaceae C. Agardh, nom. cons. (1824)
       3. Peperomiaceae A.C. Sm. (1981)
    4. Lauranae Takht. (1997)
     1. Laurales Perleb (1826)
                Gyrocarpales Dumort. (1829)
                Monimiales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Amborellaceae Pichon, nom. cons. (1948)
       2. Trimeniaceae (Janet R. Perkins & Gilg) Gibbs, nom. cons  (1917)
       3. Monimiaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1809)
                Atherospermataceae R. Br. (1814)
                Hortoniaceae (Janet R. Perkins & Gilg) A.C. Sm. (1971)
                Siparunaceae (A. DC.) Schodde (1970)
       4. Gomortegaceae Reiche, nom. cons. (1896)
       5. Hernandiaceae Blume, nom. cons. (1826)
                Gyrocarpaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Illigeraceae Blume (1833)
       6. Lauraceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cassythaceae Bartl. ex Lindl., nom. cons. (1833)
                Perseaceae Horan. (1834)
     2. Calycanthales Mart. (1835)
       1. Calycanthaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1819)
                Buttneriaceae Barnh., nom. illeg. (1895)
                Chimonanthaceae Perleb (1838)
       2. Idiospermaceae S.T. Blake (1972)
     3. Chloranthales A.C. Sm. ex J.-F. Leroy (1983)
       1. Chloranthaceae R. Br. ex Lindl., nom. cons. (1821)
                Hedyosmaceae Caruel (1881)
    5. Rafflesianae Thorne ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Hydnorales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Hydnoraceae C. Agardh, nom. cons. (1821)
     2. Rafflesiales Oliv. (1895)
                Cytinales Dumort. (1829)
                Mitrastemonales Makino (1911)
       1. Apodanthaceae (R. Br.) Tiegh. ex Takht. (1987)
       2. Mitrastemonaceae Makino, nom. cons. (1911)
       3. Rafflesiaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       4. Cytinaceae (Brongn.) A. Rich. (1824)
    6. Balanophoranae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Cynomoriales Burnett (1835)
       1. Cynomoriaceae (Schott & Endl.) Lindl., nom. cons. (1833)
     2. Balanophorales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Mystropetalaceae Hook.f. (1853)
       2. Dactylanthaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
       3. Lophophytaceae (Schott & Endl.) Bromhead (1840)
       4. Sarcophytaceae A. Kern. (1891)
       5. Scybaliaceae A. Kern. (1891)
       6. Heloseaceae (Schott & Endl.) Bromhead (1840)
       7. Langsdorffiaceae Tiegh. ex Pilger (1914)
       8. Balanophoraceae Rich. (1822)
   2. Nymphaeidae J.W. Walker ex Takht. (1997)
    1. Nymphaeanae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Hydropeltidales Spenn. (1834)
       1. Hydropeltidaceae (DC.) Dumort. (1822)
       2. Cabombaceae A. Rich., nom. cons. (1828)
     2. Nymphaeales Dumort. (1829)
                Euryalales H.L. Li (1955)
       1. Nupharaceae A. Kern. (1891)
       2. Nymphaeaceae Salisb., nom. cons. (1805)
                Euryalaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       3. Barclayaceae (Endl.) H.L. Li (1955)
    2. Ceratophyllanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
      1. Ceratophyllales Bisch. (1839)
       1. Ceratophyllaceae Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
   3. Nelumbonidae Takht. (1996)
    1. Nelumbonanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
      1. Nelumbonales Nakai ex Reveal (1996)
       1. Nelumbonaceae (DC.) Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
   4. Ranunculidae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
    1. Ranunculanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Lardizabalales Loconte (1995)
       1. Lardizabalaceae Decne., nom. cons. (1839)
                Decaisneaceae (Takht. ex Quin) Loconte (1995)
       2. Sargentodoxaceae Stapf ex Hutch. (1926)
     2. Menispermales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Menispermaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Pseliaceae Raf. (1838)
     3. Berberidales Dumort. (1829)
                Podophyllales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Nandinaceae Horan. (1834)
       2. Berberidaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       3. Ranzaniaceae (Kumaz. & Terabayashi) Takht. (1994)
       4. Podophyllaceae DC., nom. cons. (1821)
                Diphylleiaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Epimediaceae Menge (1839)
                Leonticaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
     4. Ranunculales Dumort. (1829)
                Helleborales Nakai (1949)
       1. Ranunculaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Actaeaceae Raf. (1828)
                Anemonaceae Vest (1818)
                Aquilegiaceae Lilja (1870)
                Calthaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cimicifugaceae (Arn.) Bromhead (1840)
                Clematidaceae Martinov (1820)
                Delphiniaceae Brenner (1886)
                Helleboraceae Vest (1818)
                Nigellaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Thalictraceae Raf. (1815)
     5. Circaeasterales Takh. (1997)
       1. Kingdoniaceae A.S. Foster ex Airy Shaw (1965)
       2. Circaeasteraceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1926)
     6. Hydrastidales Takht. (1997)
       1. Hydrastidaceae Martinov (1820)
     7. Glaucidiales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Glaucidiaceae Tamura (1972)
     8. Paeoniales Heintze (1927)
       1. Paeoniaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl) Rudolphi, nom. cons. (1830)
     9. Papaverales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Papaveraceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Chelidoniaceae Martinov (1820)
                Eschscholziaceae Ser. (1847)
                Platystemonaceae (Rchb. ex Spach) Lilja (1870)
       2. Pteridophyllaceae (Murb.) Nakai ex Reveal & Hoogland (1991)
       3. Hypecoaceae (Dumort.) Willk. & Lange (1880)
       4. Fumariaceae DC., nom. cons. (1821)
                Corydalaceae Vest (1818)
   5. Caryophyllidae Takht. (1967)
    1. Caryophyllanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Caryophyllales Perleb (1826)
                Amaranthales Dumort. (1829)
                Atriplicales Horan. (1847)
                Cactales Dumort. (1829)
                Chenopodiales Dumort. (1829)
                Nyctaginales Dumort. (1829)
                Opuntiales Willk. (1854)
                Petiveriales Lindl. (1833)
                Portulacales Dumort. (1829)
                Scleranthales Dumort. (1829)
                Silenales Lindl. (1833)
                Stellariales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Phytolaccaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1818)
                Sarcocaceae Raf. (1837)
       2. Gisekiaceae (Endl.) Nakai (1942)
       3. Agdestidaceae (Heimerl) Nakai (1942)
       4. Barbeuiaceae (H. Walter) T. Nakai (1942)
       5. Achatocarpaceae Harms, nom. cons. (1934)
       6. Petiveriaceae C. Agardh (1824)
                Hilleriaceae Nakai (1942)
                Riviniaceae C. Agardh (1824)
                Seguieriaceae Nakai (1942)
       7. Nyctaginaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Allioniaceae Horan. (1834)
                Bougainvilleaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Jalapaceae Adans., nom. illeg. (1763)
                Mirabilidaceae W.R.B. Oliv. (1936)
                Pisoniaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       8. Aizoaceae Rudolphi, nom. cons. (1830)
                Galeniaceae Raf. (1819)
                Mesembryaceae Dumort., nom. illeg. (1829)
                Mesembryanthemaceae Fenzl, nom. cons. (1836)
       9. Sesuviaceae Horan. (1834)
       10. Tetragoniaceae Nakai, nom. cons. (1942)
       11. Stegnospermataceae (A. Rich.) Nakai (1942)
       12. Portulacaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Montiaceae Raf. (1820)
       13. Hectorellaceae Philipson & Skipw. (1961)
       14. Basellaceae Moq., nom. cons. (1840)
                Anrederaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Ullucaceae Nakai (1942)
       15. Halophytaceae A. Soriano (1984)
       16. Cactaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cereaceae DC. & Spreng. (transl. W. Jameson) (1821)
                Opuntiaceae Martinov (1820)
       17. Didiereaceae Drake, nom. cons. (1903)
       18. Molluginaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1926)
                Adenogrammaceae (Fenzl) Nakai (1942)
                Glinaceae Link (1831)
                Pharnaceaceae Martinov (1820)
                Polpodaceae (Fenzl) Nakai (1942)
       19. Caryophyllaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Alsinaceae (Lam. & DC.) Bartl., nom. cons. (1825)
                Cerastiaceae Vest (1818)
                Corrigiolaceae (Dumort.) Dumort. (1829)
                Dianthaceae Vest (1818)
                Herniariaceae Durande (1782)
                Illecebraceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Lychnidaceae (Fenzl ex Endl.) Lilja (1870)
                Ortegaceae Martinov (1820)
                Paronychiaceae Juss. (1815)
                Polycarpaeaceae (DC.) Schur (1866)
                Scleranthaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Silenaceae (DC.) Bartl. (1825)
                Spergulaceae Adans. (1763)
                Stellariaceae Dumort. (1822)
                Telephiaceae Martinov (1820)
       20. Amaranthaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Achyranthaceae Raf. (1837)
                Celosiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Deeringiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Gomphrenaceae Raf. (1837)
       21. Chenopodiaceae Vent., nom. cons. (1799)
                Atriplicaceae Durande (1782)
                Betaceae Burnett (1835)
                Blitaceae Adans. (1763)
                Corispermaceae Link (1831)
                Dysphaniaceae (Pax) Pax, nom. cons. (1927)
                Polycnemaceae Menge (1839)
                Salicorniaceae Martinov (1820)
                Salsolaceae Menge (1839)
                Spinaciaceae Menge (1839)
    2. Gyrostemonanae Takht. (1997)
     1. Gyrostemonales Takht. (1997)
       1. Gyrostemonaceae Endl. (1841)
    3. Polygonanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Polygonales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Polygonaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Calligonaceae Khalk. (1985)
                Eriogonaceae (Dumort.) G. Don (1839)
                Persicariaceae Adans. (1763)
                Rumicaceae Martinov (1820)
    4. Plumbaginanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Plumbaginales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Plumbaginaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Aegialitidaceae Lincz. (1968)
                Armeriaceae Horan. (1834)
                Limoniaceae Ser. (1851)
                Staticaceae Cassel (1817)
   6. Hamamelididae Takht. (1967)
    1. Trochodendranae Takht. ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Trochodendrales Takht. ex Cronquist (1981)
       1. Trochodendraceae Prantl, nom. cons. (1888)
       2. Tetracentraceae A.C. Sm., nom. cons. (1945)
     2. Cercidiphyllales Hu ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Cercidiphyllaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1909)
     3. Eupteleales Hu ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Eupteleaceae K. Wilh., nom. cons. (1910)
    2. Myrothamnanae Takht. (1997)
     1. Myrothamnales Nakai ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Myrothamnaceae Nied., nom. cons. (1891)
    3. Hamamelidanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Hamamelidales Griseb. (1854)
                Platanales J.H. Schaffn. (1929)
       1. Hamamelidaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1818)
                Bucklandiaceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
                Disanthaceae Nakai (1943)
                Fothergillaceae Nutt. (1818)
                Parrotiaceae Horan. (1834)
                Rhodoleiaceae Nakai (1943)
       2. Altingiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1846)
       3. Platanaceae T. Lestib. ex Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
    4. Barbeyanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Barbeyales Takht. & Reveal (1993)
       1. Barbeyaceae Rendle, nom. cons. (1916)
    5. Daphniphyllanae Takht. (1996)
     1. Daphniphyllales Pulle ex Cronquist (1981)
       1. Daphniphyllaceae Müll.-Arg., nom. cons. (1869)
     2. Balanopales Engl. (1897)
       1. Balanopaceae Benth. & Hook.f. (1880)
    6. Buxanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Didymelales Takht. (1967)
       1. Didymelaceae Leandri (1937)
     2. Buxales Takht. ex Reveal (1996)
       1. Buxaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1822)
                Pachysandraceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Stylocerataceae (Pax) Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1990)
     3. Simmondsiales Reveal (1992)
       1. Simmondsiaceae (Müll.-Arg.) Tiegh. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1990)
    7. Faganae Takht. (1997)
     1. Fagales Engl. (1892)
                Quercales Burnett (1835)
       1. Fagaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Castaneaceae Adans. (1763)
                Quercaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
       2. Nothofagaceae Kuprian. (1962)
     2. Corylales Dumort. (1829)
                Betulales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Betulaceae Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
       2. Corylaceae Mirb., nom. cons. (1815)
                Carpinaceae Vest (1818)
       3. Ticodendraceae Gómez-Laur. & L.D. Gómez (1991)
    8. Casuarinanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Casuarinales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Casuarinaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
    9. Juglandanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Myricales Engl. (1897)
       1. Myricaceae Blume, nom. cons. (1829)
     2. Rhoipteleales Novák ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Rhoipteleaceae Hand.-Mazz., nom. cons. (1932)
     3. Juglandales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth, nom. cons. (1824)
   7. Dilleniidae Takht. ex Reveal & Tahkt. (1993)
                Heliamphoraceae Chrtek, Slavíková & Studnicka (1992)
    1. Dillenianae Takht. (1967)
     1. Dilleniales Hutch. (1924)
       1. Dilleniaceae Salisb. (1807)
                Hibbertiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Soramiaceae Martinov (1820)
    2. Theanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1993)
                Lecythidanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Paracryphiales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Paracryphiaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
     2. Theales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Stachyuraceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Theaceae D. Don, nom. cons. (1825)
                Camelliaceae DC. (1816)
                Gordoniaceae (DC.) Spreng. (1826)
                Malachodendraceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
                Sladeniaceae (Gilg & Werderm.) Airy Shaw (1965)
                Ternstroemiaceae Mirb. ex DC. (1816)
       3. Asteropeiaceae (Szyszyl.) Takht. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1990)
       4. Pentaphylacaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1897)
       5. Tetrameristaceae Hutch. (1959)
       6. Oncothecaceae Kobuski ex Airy Shaw (1965)
       7. Marcgraviaceae Choisy (1824)
       8. Caryocaraceae Szyszyl., nom. cons. (1893)
                Rhizobolaceae DC., nom. illeg. (1824)
       9. Pellicieraceae (Triana & Planch.) L. Beauvis. ex Bullock (1959)
     3. Hypericales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Bonnetiaceae (Bartl.) L. Beauv. ex Nakai (1948)
       2. Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Calophyllaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Cambogiaceae Horan. (1834)
                Garciniaceae Bartl. (1830)
                Guttiferae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
       3. Hypericaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Ascyraceae Plenck (1796)
     4. Physenales Takht. (1997)
       1. Physenaceae Takht. (1985)
     5. Medusagynales Takht., nom. cons. (1996)
       1. Medusagynaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
     6. Ochnales Hutch. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Strasburgeriaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
       2. Ochnaceae DC., nom. cons. (1811)
                Gomphiaceae DC. ex Schnizl. (1843-1870)
       3. Sauvagesiaceae (Ging. ex DC.) Dumort. (1829)
                Luxemburgiaceae Soler. (1908)
       4. Lophiraceae Loud. (1830)
       5. Quiinaceae Choisy ex Engl., nom. cons. (1888)
       6. Scytopetalaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1897)
                Rhaptopetalaceae Tiegh. ex Soler. (1908)
     7. Elatinales Nakai (1949)
       1. Elatinaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Alsinastraceae Rupr., nom. illeg. (1860)
                Cryptaceae Raf. (1820)
     8. Ancistrocladales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Ancistrocladaceae Planch. ex Walp., nom. cons. (1851)
     9. Dioncophyllales Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Dioncophyllaceae (Gilg) Airy Shaw, nom. cons. (1952)
     10. Lecythidales Cronquist (1957)
       1. Barringtoniaceae (DC. ex Schltdl.) Rudolphi, nom. cons  (1830)
       2. Lecythidaceae Poit., nom. cons. (1825)
                Gustaviaceae Burnett (1835)
       3. Napoleonaeaceae A. Rich. (1827)
                Belvisiaceae R. Br., nom. illeg. (1821)
       4. Foetidiaceae (Nied.) Airy Shaw (1965)
       5. Asteranthaceae R. Knuth, nom. cons. (1939)
    3. Sarracenianae Thorne ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Sarraceniales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Sarraceniaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
    4. Nepenthanae Takht. ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Nepenthales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Nepenthaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     2. Droserales Griseb. (1854)
       1. Droseraceae Salisb. (1808)
                Aldrovandaceae Nakai (1949)
                Dionaeaceae Raf. (1837)
                Drosophyllaceae Chrtek, Slavíková & Studnicka (1989)
    5. Ericanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Actinidiales Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Actinidiaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1926)
                Saurauiaceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
     2. Ericales Dumort. (1829)
                Empetrales Raf. (1838)
                Rhodorales Horan. (1847)
                Vacciniales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Clethraceae Klotzsch, nom. cons. (1851)
       2. Cyrillaceae Endl. (1841)
       3. Ericaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Andromedaceae (Endl.) DC. ex Schnizl. (1843-1870)
                Arbutaceae (Meisn.) Bromhead (1840)
                Arctostaphylaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Azaleaceae Vest (1818)
                Diplarchaceae Klotzsch (1860)
                Hypopityaceae Link (1831)
                Kalmiaceae Durande (1782)
                Ledaceae Link (1821)
                Menziesiaceae Klotzsch (1851)
                Monotropaceae Nutt., nom. cons. (1818)
                Pyrolaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Rhododendraceae Juss. (1789)
                Rhodoraceae Vent. (1799)
                Salaxidaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Siphonandraceae Klotzsch, nom. illeg. (1851)
                Vacciniaceae DC. ex Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
       4. Epacridaceae R. Br. (1810)
                Prionotaceae Hutch. (1969)
                Stypheliaceae Horan. (1834)
       5. Empetraceae Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
     3. Diapensiales Engl. & Gilg (1924)
       1. Diapensiaceae (Link) Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Galacaceae D. Don (1828)
     4. Bruniales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Bruniaceae R. Br. ex DC., nom. cons. (1825)
                Berzeliaceae Nakai (1943)
       2. Grubbiaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1839)
                Ophiraceae Arn. (1841)
     5. Geissolomatales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Geissolomataceae Endl. (1841)
     6. Fouquieriales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Fouquieriaceae DC. (1828)
    6. Primulanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Styracales Bisch. (1839)
                Diospyrales Prantl (1874)
                Ebenales Engl. (1892)
       1. Styracaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Halesiaceae D. Don (1828)
       2. Symplocaceae Desf., nom. cons. (1820)
       3. Ebenaceae Gürcke, nom. cons. (1891)
                Diospyraceae Durande (1782)
                Guaiacanaceae Juss. (1789)
       4. Lissocarpaceae Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
     2. Sapotales Hook.f., nom. cons. (1868)
       1. Sapotaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Achradaceae Vest (1818)
                Boerlagellaceae H.J. Lam (1925)
                Bumeliaceae Barnh. (1895)
                Sarcospermataceae H.J. Lam (1925)
     3. Myrsinales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Myrsinaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Aegicerataceae Blume (1833)
                Ardisiaceae Juss. (1810)
                Embeliaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Theophrastaceae Link (1829)
     4. Primulales Dumort. (1829)
                Samolales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Primulaceae Vent., nom. cons. (1799)
                Anagallidaceae Adans. (1763)
                Coridaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Lysimachiaceae Durande (1782)
                Samolaceae Raf. (1820)
    7. Violanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
                Capparanae Reveal (1994)
                Cucurbitanae Reveal (1994)
     1. Violales Perleb (1826)
                Flacourtiales Heintze (1927)
                Homaliales Bromhead (1838)
                Lacistematales Baskerville (1839)
                Samydales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Berberidopsidaceae (Veldk.) Takht. (1985)
       2. Aphloiaceae Takht. (1985)
       3. Bembiciaceae R.C. Keating & Takht. (1996)
       4. Flacourtiaceae Rich. ex DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Blakwelliaceae T. Lestib., nom. illeg. (1826)
                Homaliaceae R. Br. (1818)
                Kiggelariaceae Link (1831)
                Pangiaceae Endl. (1841)
                Prockiaceae Bertuch (1801)
                Samydaceae Vent., nom. cons. (1808)
       5. Lacistemataceae Mart., nom. cons. (1826)
       6. Peridiscaceae Kuhlm., nom. cons. (1950)
       7. Violaceae Batsch, nom. cons. (1802)
                Alsodiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Ionidiaceae Mert. & W.J. Koch (1823)
                Leoniaceae A. DC. (1844)
       8. Dipentodontaceae Merr., nom. cons. (1941)
       9. Scyphostegiaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1926)
     2. Passiflorales Dumort. (1829)
                Turnerales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Passifloraceae Juss. ex Kunth, nom. cons. (1817)
                Modeccaceae Horan. (1847)
                Paropsiaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Smeathmanniaceae Mart. ex Perleb (1838)
       2. Turneriaceae Kunth ex DC., nom. cons. (1828)
                Piriquetaceae Martinov (1820)
       3. Malesherbiaceae D. Don, nom. cons. (1827)
       4. Achariaceae Harms, nom. cons. (1897)
     3. Caricales L.D. Benson (1957)
       1. Caricaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Papayaceae Blume, nom. illeg. (1826)
     4. Salicales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Salicaceae Mirb., nom. cons. (1815)
     5. Tamaricales Hutch. (1924)
       1. Reaurmuriaceae Ehrenb. ex Lindl. (1830)
       2. Tamaricaceae Link, nom. cons. (1821)
       3. Frankeniaceae A. St.-Hil. ex Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
     6. Cucurbitales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Cucurbitaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Bryoniaceae Adans. (1763)
                Cyclantheraceae Lilja (1870)
                Nhandirobaceae T. Lestib. (1826)
                Zanoniaceae Dumort. (1829)
     7. Begoniales Dumort. (1829)
                Datiscales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Datiscaceae R. Br. ex Lindl., nom. cons. (1830)
       2. Tetramelaceae (Warb.) Airy Shaw (1965)
       3. Begoniaceae C. Agardh, nom. cons. (1824)
     8. Capparales Hutch. (1924)
                Brassicales Bromhead (1838)
                Resedales Dumort. (1829)
                Tovariales Nakai (1943)
       1. Capparaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cleomaceae Horan. (1834)
                Oxystylidaceae Hutch. (1969)
       2. Pentadiplandraceae Hutch. & Dalziel (1928)
       3. Koeberliniaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1895)
       4. Brassicaceae Burnett, nom. cons. (1835)
                Cruciferae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
                Drabaceae Martinov (1820)
                Erysimaceae Martinov (1820)
                Raphanaceae Horan. (1847)
                Schizopetalaceae A. Juss. (1848)
                Sismbriaceae Martinov (1820)
                Stanleyaceae Nutt. (1834)
                Thlaspiaceae Adans. (1763)
       5. Tovariaceae Pax, nom. cons. (1891)
       6. Resedaceae DC. ex Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
                Astrocarpaceae A. Kern. (1891)
     9. Moringales Nakai (1943)
       1. Moringaceae R. Br. ex Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Hyperantheraceae Link (1829)
     10. Batales Engl. (1907)
       1. Bataceae Mart. ex Meisn., nom. cons. (1842)
    8. Malvanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Cistales Rchb.f. (1828)
                Bixales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Bixaceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
       2. Cochlospermaceae Planch. (1847)
       3. Cistaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Helianthemaceae G. Mey. (1836)
     2. Elaeocarpales Takht. (1997)
       1. Elaeocarpaceae Juss. ex DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Aristoteliaceae Dumort. (1829)
     3. Malvales Dumort. (1829)
                Tiliales Caruel (1881)
       1. Tiliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Sparmanniaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Dirachmaceae Hutch. (1959)
       3. Monotaceae (Gilg) Takht. (1987)
       4. Dipterocarpaceae Blume (1825)
       5. Sarcolaenaceae Caruel, nom. cons. (1881)
                Rhodolaenaceae Bullock (1958)
                Schizolaenaceae Barnh. (1895)
       6. Plagiopteraceae Airy Shaw (1965)
       7. Huaceae A. Chev. (1947)
       8. Sterculiaceae (DC.) Bartl., nom. cons. (1830)
                Byttneriaceae R. Br. (1814)
                Cacaoaceae Augier ex T. Post & Kuntze (1903)
                Chiranthodendraceae A. Gray (1887)
                Dombeyaceae Kunth ex Desf. (1829)
                Fremontiaceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
                Helicteraceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Hermanniaceae Durande (1782)
                Lasiopetalaceae Rchb. (1823)
                Melochiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Pentapetaceae Spreng. (1826)
                Theobromataceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Triplobaceae Raf. (1838)
       9. Diegodendraceae Capuron (1964)
       10. Sphaerosepalaceae (Warb.) Tiegh. ex Bullock (1959)
                Rhopalocarpaceae Hemsl. ex Takht. (1987)
       11. Bombacaceae Kunth, nom. cons. (1822)
       12. Malvaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Fugosiaceae Martinov, nom. illeg. (1820)
                Hibiscaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Philippodendraceae Endl. (1841)
                Plagianthaceae J. Agardh (1858)
    9. Urticanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Urticales Dumort. (1829)
                Ficales Dumort. (1829)
                Ulmales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Ulmaceae Mirb., nom. cons. (1815)
                Celtidaceae Link (1831)
       2. Moraceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
                Artocarpaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Dorsteniaceae Chev. (1827)
                Ficaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl) Dumort. (1829)
       3. Cannabaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1837)
                Lupulaceae Link (1831)
       4. Cecropiaceae C.C. Berg (1978)
       5. Urticaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
    10. Euphorbianae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Euphorbiales Lindl. (1833)
                Pandales Engl. & Gilg (1913)
       1. Euphorbiaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Acalyphaceae Juss. ex Menge (1839)
                Androstachyaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
                Antidesmataceae Loud. (1830)
                Aporusaceae Lindl. ex Miq. (1859)
                Bertyaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Bischofiaceae (Müll.-Arg.) Airy Shaw (1965)
                Crotonaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Hippomanaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Hymenocardiaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
                Mercurialaceae Martinov (1820)
                Micrantheaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Paivaeusaceae A. Meeuse (1990)
                Peraceae Klotzsch (1859)
                Phyllanthaceae Martinov (1820)
                Picrodendraceae Small ex Britt. & Millsp., nom. cons  (1920)
                Porantheraceae (Pax) Hurus. (1954)
                Pseudanthaceae Endl. (1839)
                Putranjivaceae Endl. (1841)
                Ricinaceae Martinov (1820)
                Ricinocarpaceae (Müll.-Arg.) Hurus. (1954)
                Scepaceae Lindl. (1836)
                Stilaginaceae C. Agardh (1824)
                Tithymalaceae Adans. (1763)
                Tragiaceae Raf. (1838)
                Trewiaceae Lindl. (1836)
                Uapacaceae (Müll.-Arg.) Airy Shaw (1965)
       2. Pandaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1813)
                Bennettiaceae R. Br. ex Schnizl., nom. illeg  (1846-1866)
       3. Aextoxicaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1920)
       4. Dichapetalaceae Baill., nom. cons. (1886)
                Chailletiaceae R. Br. (1818)
     2. Thymelaeales Willk. (1854)
                Daphnales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Gonystylaceae Gilg, nom. cons. (1897)
       2. Thymelaeaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Aquilariaceae R. Br. ex DC. (1825)
                Daphnaceae Vent. (1799)
                Phaleriaceae Meisn. (1841)
   8. Rosidae Takht. (1967)
    1. Saxifraganae Reveal (1994)
                Podostemanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Cunoniales Hutch. (1924)
       1. Cunoniaceae R. Br. (1814)
                Baueraceae Lindl. (1830)
                Belangeraceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Callicomaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Davidsoniaceae Bange (1952)
       3. Eucryphiaceae Endl. (1841)
       4. Brunelliaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1897)
     2. Saxifragales Dumort. (1829)
                Crassulales Lindl. (1833)
                Grossulariales Lindl. (1833)
                Sedales Rchb.f. (1828)
       1. Tetracarpaeaceae Nakai (1943)
       2. Penthoraceae Rydb. ex Britt., nom. cons. (1901)
       3. Crassulaceae DC., nom. cons. (1805)
                Cotyledonaceae Martinov (1820)
                Rhodiolaceae Martinov (1820)
                Sedaceae Adans. (1763)
                Sempervivaceae Durande (1782)
                Tillaeaceae Martinov (1820)
       4. Saxifragaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Pectiantiaceae Raf. (1837)
       5. Grossulariaceae DC., nom. cons. (1805)
                Ribesiaceae Marq. (1820)
       6. Pterostemonaceae Small, nom. cons. (1905)
       7. Iteaceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
       8. Eremosynaceae Dandy (1959)
       9. Vahliaceae Dandy (1959)
     3. Cephalotales Nakai (1943)
       1. Cephalotaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     4. Greyiales Takht. (1997)
       1. Greyiaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1926)
     5. Francoales Takht. (1996)
       1. Francoaceae A. Juss., nom. cons. (1832)
     6. Haloragales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Haloragaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
                Cercodiaceae Juss. (1817)
                Myriophyllaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
     7. Podostemales Lindl. (1833)
                Marathrales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Podostemaceae Rich. ex C. Agardh, nom. cons. (1822)
                Marathraceae Dumort. (1829)
                Philocrenaceae Bongard (1834)
                Tristichaceae Willis (1915)
     8. Gunnerales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Gunneraceae Meisn., nom. cons. (1842)
    2. Rosanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Rosales Perleb (1826)
                Sanguisorbales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Rosaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Agrimoniaceae Gray (1821)
                Alchemillaceae Martinov (1820)
                Amygdalaceae (Juss.) D. Don, nom. cons. (1825)
                Cercocarpaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Coleogynaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Cydoniaceae Schnizl. (1858)
                Dryadaceae Gray (1821)
                Fragariaceae Nestl. (1816)
                Hirtellaceae Horan. (1847)
                Lindleyaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Malaceae Small ex Britt., nom. cons. (1903)
                Mespilaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Neilliaceae Miq. (1855)
                Potentillaceae (Juss.) Wilbr. (1824)
                Poteriaceae Raf. (1815)
                Prunaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Pyraceae Vest (1818)
                Quillajaceae D. Don (1831)
                Rhodotypaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Sanguisorbaceae Durande (1782)
                Sorbaceae Brenner (1886)
                Spiraeaceae Bertuch (1801)
                Tormentillaceae Martinov (1820)
                Ulmariaceae Gray (1821)
       2. Neuradaceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
                Grielaceae Martinov (1820)
     2. Crossosomatales Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Crossosomataceae Engl., nom. cons. (1897)
     3. Chrysobalanales Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Chrysobalanaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1818)
                Licaniaceae Martinov (1820)
    3. Rhizophoranae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Anisophylleales Takht. (1997)
       1. Anisophylleaceae Ridl. (1922)
                Cassipoureaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Legnotidaceae Endl., nom. illeg. (1841)
                Macarisiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Mangiaceae Raf. (1837)
                Polygonanthaceae Croizat (1943)
     2. Rhizophorales Tiegh. ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Rhizophoraceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
    4. Myrtanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Myrtales Rchb.f. (1828)
                Combretales Baskerville (1839)
                Lythrales Caruel (1881)
                Melastomales Oliv. (1895)
                Oenotherales Bromhead (1838)
                Onagrales Rchb.f. (1828)
                Penaeales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Alzateaceae SA. Graham (1985)
       2. Rhynchocalycaceae L.A.S. Johnson & B.G. Briggs (1985)
       3. Penaeaceae Sweet ex Guill., nom. cons. (1828)
       4. Oliniaceae Harv. & Sond., nom. cons. (1862)
       5. Combretaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Bucidaceae Spreng. (1825)
                Myrobalanaceae Martinov (1820)
                Sheadendraceae Bertol. (1850)
                Terminaliaceae J. St.-Hil. (1805)
       6. Crypteroniaceae A. DC., nom. cons. (1868)
                Henslowiaceae Lindl. (1835)
       7. Memecylaceae DC. ex Schltdl. (1827)
                Mouririaceae Gardner (1840)
       8. Melastomataceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Blakeaceae Rchb. ex Barnh. (1895)
                Miconiaceae K. Koch (1857)
                Rhexiaceae Dumort. (1822)
       9. Lythraceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons. (1805)
                Ammanniaceae Horan. (1834)
                Lagerstroemiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Lawsoniaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Salicariaceae Adans., nom. illeg. (1763)
       10. Punicaceae Horan., nom. cons. (1834)
       11. Duabangaceae Takht. (1986)
       12. Sonneratiaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
                Blattiaceae Nied. (1892)
       13. Onagraceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Circaeaceae Ruthe (1827)
                Epilobiaceae Vent. (1799)
                Fuchsiaceae (DC.) Lilja (1870)
                Isnardiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Jussiaeaceae Martinov (1820)
                Lopeziaceae (Spach) Lilja (1870)
                Oenotheraceae C.C. Robin (1807)
       14. Trapaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       15. Psiloxylaceae Croizat (1960)
       16. Heteropyxidaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1920)
       17. Myrtaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Chamelauciaceae (DC.) Rudolphi (1830)
                Kaniaceae Nakai (1943)
                Leptospermaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl) Rudolphi (1830)
                Melaleucaceae Vest (1818)
                Myrrhiniaceae Arn. (1839)
    5. Fabanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1993)
     1. Fabales Bromhead (1838)
                Cassiales Horan. (1847)
       1. Fabaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Aspalathaceae Martinov (1820)
                Astragalaceae Martinov (1820)
                Bauhiniaceae Martinov (1820)
                Caesalpiniaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
                Cassiaceae Vest (1818)
                Ceratoniaceae Link (1831)
                Ciceraceae Steele (1847)
                Coronillaceae Martinov (1820)
                Detariaceae (DC.) J. Hess (1832)
                Galedupaceae Martinov (1820)
                Hedysaraceae Oken (1826)
                Inocarpaceae Zoll. (1854-1855)
                Lathyraceae Burnett (1835)
                Leguminosae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
                Lotaceae Oken (1826)
                Mimosaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
                Papilionaceae Giseke, nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1792)
                Phaseolaceae Schnizl. (1843-1870)
                Robiniaceae Vest (1818)
                Swartzieae (DC.) Bartl. (1830)
                Tamarindaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Viciaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
    6. Rutanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Sapindales Dumort. (1829)
                Acerales Lindl. (1833)
                Aesculales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Staphyleaceae (DC.) Lindl., nom. cons. (1829)
                Ochranthaceae Endl. (1841)
       2. Tapisciaceae (Pax) Takht. (1987)
       3. Melianthaceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
       4. Sapindaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Allophylaceae Martinov (1820)
                Dodonaeaceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
                Koelreuteriaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Ornithropaceae Martinov (1820)
                Paulliniaceae Durande (1782)
       5. Hippocastanaceae DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Aesculaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Paviaceae Horan. (1834)
       6. Aceraceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       7. Bretschneideraceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
       8. Akaniaceae Stapf, nom. cons. (1912)
     2. Tropaeolales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Tropaeolaceae Juss. ex DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Cardamindaceae Link, nom. illeg. (1831)
     3. Sabiales Takht. (1997)
       1. Sabiaceae Blume, nom. cons. (1851)
       2. Meliosmaceae Endl. (1841)
                Millingtoniaceae Wight & Arn., nom. illeg. (1834)
                Wellingtoniaceae Meisn. (1840)
     4. Connarales Takht. ex Reveal (1996)
       1. Connaraceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1818)
                Cnestiaceae (Raf.) Raf. (1830)
     5. Rutales Perleb (1826)
                Citrales Dumort. (1829)
                Meliales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Rutaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Amyridaceae Kunth (1824)
                Aurantiaceae Durande (1782)
                Boroniaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Citraceae Roussel (1806)
                Cuspariaceae (DC.) Tratt., nom. illeg. (1825)
                Dictamnaceae Vest (1818)
                Diosmaceae R. Br. ex Bartl. (1830)
                Diplolaenaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Flindersiaceae (Engl.) C.T. White ex Airy Shaw (1965)
                Fraxinellaceae Nees & Mart. (1823)
                Jamboliferaceae Martinov (1820)
                Monieraceae Raf., nom. illeg. (1838)
                Pilocarpaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Pteleaceae Kunth (1824)
                Spatheliaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Zanthoxylaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
       2. Rhabdodendraceae (Huber) Prance (1968)
       3. Cneoraceae Link, nom. cons. (1831)
                Chamaeleaceae Bertol., nom. illeg. (1834)
       4. Simaroubaceae DC., nom. cons. (1811)
                Ailanthaceae (Arn.) J. Agardh (1858)
                Castelaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Picramniaceae (Engler) Fernando & Quinn (1995)
                Quassiaceae Bertol. (1827)
                Simabaceae Horan. (1847)
                Soulameaceae Endl. (1841)
       5. Surianaceae Arn. (1834)
                Stylobasiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       6. Irvingiaceae (Engl.) Exell & Mendonça, nom. cons. (1951)
       7. Kirkiaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1967)
       8. Ptaeroxylaceae J.-F. Leroy (1960)
       9. Tepuianthaceae Maguire & Steyerm. (1981)
       10. Meliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Aitoniaceae (Harv.) R.A. Dyer, nom. inadmiss. (1975)
                Cedrelaceae R. Br. (1814)
                Swieteniaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
     6. Leitneriales Engl. (1897)
       1. Leitneriaceae Benth. & Hook.f. (1880)
     7. Coriariales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Coriariaceae DC., nom. cons. (1824)
     8. Burserales Baskerville (1839)
                Julianiales Engl. (1907)
       1. Burseraceae Kunth, nom. cons. (1824)
                Balsameaceae Dumort. (1829)
       2. Anacardiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1830)
                Blepharocaryaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
                Cassuviaceae Juss. ex R. Br., nom. illeg. (1818)
                Comocladiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Julianiaceae Hemsl., nom. cons. (1906)
                Pistaciaceae Adans. (1763)
                Rhoaceae Spreng. ex Sadler (1826)
                Schinaceae Raf. (1837)
                Spondiadaceae Martinov (1820)
                Sumachieae (DC.) Perleb, nom. illeg. (1838)
                Terebinthaceae Durande, nom. illeg. (1782)
                Vernicaceae Link (1831)
       3. Podoaceae Baill. ex Franch. (1889)
    7. Geranianae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Linales Baskerville (1839)
       1. Hugoniaceae Arn. (1834)
       2. Linaceae DC. ex Gray (1821)
       3. Ctenolophonaceae (H. Winkl.) Exell & Mendonça (1951)
       4. Ixonanthaceae (Benth.) Exell & Mendonça, nom. cons. (1951)
       5. Humiriaceae A. Juss., nom. cons. (1829)
       6. Erythroxylaceae Kunth, nom. cons. (1822)
                Nectaropetalaceae (H. Winkl.) Exell & Mendonça (1951)
     2. Oxalidales Heintze (1927)
       1. Oxalidaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1818)
                Averrhoaceae Hutch. (1959)
                Oxydacae Rupr., nom. inadmiss. (1860)
       2. Lepidobotryaceae J. Léonard, nom. cons. (1950)
     3. Geraniales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Hypseocharitaceae Wedd. (1861)
       2. Vivianiaceae Klotzsch (1836)
       3. Geraniaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Erodiaceae Horan. (1847)
       4. Ledocarpaceae Meyen (1834)
       5. Rhynchothecaceae Endl. (1841)
     4. Biebersteiniales Takht. (1997)
       1. Biebersteiniaceae Endl. (1841)
     5. Balsaminales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Balsaminaceae A. Rich., nom. cons. (1822)
                Hydroceraceae Blume, nom. inadmiss. (1825)
                Impatientaceae Barnh. (1895)
     6. Zygophyllales Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Zygophyllaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
                Tribulaceae Trautv. (1853)
       2. Peganaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
       3. Balanitaceae Endl. (1841)
       4. Nitrariaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
       5. Tetradiclidaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1986)
     7. Vochysiales Dumort. (1829)
                Malpighiales Mart. (1835)
       1. Malpighiaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       2. Trigoniaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1841)
       3. Vochysiaceae A. St.-Hil., nom. cons. (1820)
                Euphroniaceae Marc.-Berti (1989)
       4. Tremandraceae R. Br. ex DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Tetrathecaceae R. Br. (1814)
       5. Krameriaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     8. Polygalales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Polygalaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
                Diclidantheraceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
                Moutabeaceae Endl. (1841)
       2. Xanthophyllaceae (Chodat) Gagnep. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1990)
       3. Emblingiaceae (Pax) Airy Shaw (1965)
    8. Corynocarpanae Takht. (1997)
     1. Corynocarpales Takht. (1997)
       1. Corynocarpaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1897)
    9. Celastranae Takht. (1967)
     1. Brexiales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Ixerbaceae Griseb. (1854)
       2. Brexiaceae Loud. (1830)
       3. Rousseaceae DC. (1839)
     2. Parnassiales Nakai (1943)
       1. Parnassiaceae Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
       2. Lepuropetalaceae (Engl.) Nakai (1943)
     3. Celastrales Baskerville (1839)
       1. Goupiaceae Miers (1862)
       2. Celastraceae R. Br. (1814)
                Canotiaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
                Chingithamnaceae Hand.-Mazz. (1932)
                Euonymaceae Juss. ex Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Hippocrateaceae Juss. (1811)
                Salaciaceae Raf. (1838)
                Siphonodontaceae (Croizat) Gagnep. & Tardieu ex Tardieu, nom. cons. (1951)
       3. Lophopyxidaceae (Engl.) H. Pfeif. (1951)
       4. Stackhousiaceae R. Br. (1814)
     4. Salvadorales R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Salvadoraceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Azimaceae Wight & Gardner (1845)
     5. Icacinales Tiegh. ex Reveal (1993)
                Aquifoliales Senft (1856)
       1. Aquifoliaceae Bartl., nom. cons. (1830)
                Ilicaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
       2. Phellinaceae (Loes.) Takht. (1967)
       3. Icacinaceae (Benth.) Miers, nom. cons. (1851)
                Pennantiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Phytocrenaceae Arn. ex R. Br. (1852)
       4. Sphenostemonaceae P. Royen & Airy Shaw (1972)
     6. Metteniusales Takht. (1997)
       1. Metteniusaceae H. Karst. ex Schnizl. (1843-1870)
     7. Cardiopteridaceae Tahkt. (1997)
                Peripterygiaceae F N. Williams (1905)
       1. Cardiopteridaceae Blume, nom. cons. (1847)
    10. Santalanae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Medusandrales Brenan (1952)
       1. Medusandraceae Brenan, nom. cons. (1952)
     2. Santalales Dumort. (1829)
                Anthobolales Dumort. (1829)
                Loranthales Dumort. (1829)
                Olacales Benth. (1862)
       1. Olacaceae Mirb. ex DC., nom. cons. (1824)
                Erythropalaceae (Hassk.) Sleumer, nom. cons. (1942)
                Schoepfiaceae Blume (1850)
                Tetrastylidiaceae Calest. (1905)
                Ximeniaceae Martinet (1873)
       2. Opiliaceae (Benth.) Valeton, nom. cons. (1886)
                Cansjeraceae J. Agardh (1858)
       3. Aptandraceae Miers (1853)
       4. Octoknemaceae Tiegh. ex Engl., nom. cons. (1909)
       5. Santalaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Anthobolaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Canopodaceae C. Presl (1851)
                Exocarpaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Osyridaceae Raf. (1820)
                Thesiaceae Vest (1818)
       6. Misodendraceae J. Agardh (1858)
       7. Loranthaceae Juss. (1808)
                Elytranthaceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Gaiadendraceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Nuytsiaceae Tiegh. (1896)
                Psittacanthaceae Nakai (1952)
       8. Viscaceae Batsch (1802)
                Arceuthobiaceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Bifariaceae Nakai (1952)
                Dendrophthoaceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Ginalloaceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Phoradendraceae H. Karsten (1860)
       9. Eremolepidaceae Tiegh. ex Nakai (1952)
                Lepidocerataceae Nakai (1952)
    11. Rhamnanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Rhamnales Dumort. (1829)
                Frangulales Wirtg. (1860)
       1. Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Frangulaceae DC. (1805)
                Gouaniaceae Raf. (1837)
                Phylicaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Ziziphaceae Adans. (1763)
     2. Elaeagnales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Elaeagnaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Hippophaeaceae G. Mey. (1836)
    12. Proteanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Proteales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Proteaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Lepidocarpaceae Schultz Sch., nom. illeg. (1832)
    13. Vitanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Vitales Reveal (1996)
       1. Vitaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Ampelopsidaceae Kostel. (1835)
                Cissaceae Drejer (1840)
                Pterisanthaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Leeaceae (DC.) Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
   9. Cornidae Frohne & U. Jensen ex Reveal (1994)
    1. Cornanae Thorne ex Reveal (1996)
                Eucommianae Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
     1. Hydrangeales Nakai (1943)
                Hortensiales Griseb. (1854)
       1. Escalloniaceae R. Br. ex Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Polyosmaceae Blume (1851)
       2. Hydrangeaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Hortensiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Kirengeshomaceae Nakai (1943)
                Philadelphaceae Martinov (1820)
       3. Abrophyllaceae Nakai (1943)
       4. Argophyllaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
       5. Corokiaceae Kapil ex Takht. (1997)
       6. Alseuosmiaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
       7. Carpodetaceae Fenzl (1841)
       8. Phyllonomaceae Small (1905)
                Dulongiaceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
       9. Pottingeriaceae (Engl.) Takht. (1987)
       10. Tribelaceae (Engl.) Airy Shaw (1965)
       11. Melanophyllaceae Takht. ex Airy Shaw (1972)
       12. Montiniaceae Nakai (1943)
       13. Kaliphoraceae Takht. (1996)
       14. Columelliaceae D. Don, nom. cons. (1828)
     2. Desfontainiales Takht. (1996)
       1. Desfontainiaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1841)
     3. Roridulales Nakai (1943)
       1. Roridulaceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
     4. Cornales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Davidiaceae (Harms) H.L. Li (1955)
       2. Nyssaceae Juss. ex Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       3. Mastixiaceae Calest. (1905)
       4. Curtisiaceae (Harms) Takht. (1987)
       5. Cornaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl) Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       6. Alangiaceae DC., nom. cons. (1828)
     5. Garryales Lindl. (1846)
       1. Garryaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1834)
     6. Aucubales Takht. (1997)
       1. Aucubaceae J. Agardh (1858)
     7. Griseliniales Takht. (1997)
       1. Griseliniaceae J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. ex A. Cunn. (1839)
     8. Eucommiales Nemejc ex Cronquist (1981)
       1. Eucommiaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1909)
     9. Aralidiales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Aralidiaceae Philipson & B C. Stone (1980)
     10. Torricelliales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Torricelliaceae (Wang.) Hu (1934)
    2. Aralianae Takht. (1967)
     1. Helwingiales Takht. (1997)
       1. Helwingiaceae Decne. (1836)
     2. Araliales Reveal (1996)
                Ammiales Small (1903)
                Apiales Nakai (1930)
       1. Araliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Botryodendraceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Hederaceae Giseke (1792)
       2. Hydrocotylaceae (Link) N. Hyl., nom. cons. (1945)
       3. Apiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Ammiaceae J. Presl & C. Presl ex Barnh. (1895)
                Angelicaceae Martinov (1820)
                Bupleuraceae Martinov (1820)
                Coriandraceae Burnett (1835)
                Daucaceae Martinov (1820)
                Eryngiaceae Raf. (1838)
                Imperatoriaceae Martinov (1820)
                Pastinacaceae Martinov (1820)
                Saniculaceae (Burnett) A. Löve & D. Löve (1974)
                Smyrniaceae Burnett (1835)
                Umbelliferae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
     3. Pittosporales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Pittosporaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
     4. Byblidales Nakai ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Byblidaceae (Engl. & Gilg) Domin, nom. cons. (1922)
    3. Dipsacanae Takht. (1996)
     1. Viburnales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Viburnaceae Raf. (1820)
                Tinaceae Martinov (1820)
     2. Adoxales Nakai (1949)
       1. Sambucaceae Batsch (1786)
       2. Adoxaceae Trautv., nom. cons. (1853)
     3. Dipsacales Dumort. (1829)
                Caprifoliales Lindl. (1833)
                Lonicerales T. Liebe (1866)
       1. Caprifoliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Loniceraceae Vest (1818)
       2. Valerianaceae Batsch, nom. cons. (1802)
       3. Triplostegiaceae (Höck) Airy Shaw (1965)
       4. Dipsacaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Scabiosaceae Adans. (1763)
       5. Morinaceae Raf. (1820)
   10. Asteridae Takht. (1967)
    1. Campanulanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Campanulales Rchb.f. (1828)
       1. Pentaphragmataceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Sphenocleaceae Mart. ex DC., nom. cons. (1839)
                Pongatiaceae Endl. ex Meisn., nom. illeg. (1839)
       3. Campanulaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cyananthaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Jasionaceae Dumort. (1829)
       4. Cyphocarpaceae (Miers) Reveal & Hoogl. (1996)
       5. Nemacladaceae Nutt. (1842)
       6. Cyphiaceae A. DC. (1839)
       7. Lobeliaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1817)
                Dortmannaceae Rupr. (1856)
     2. Goodeniales Lindl. (1833)
                Brunoniales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Brunoniaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       2. Goodeniaceae R. Br. (1810)
                Scaevolaceae Lindl. (1830)
     3. Stylidiales Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Donatiaceae (Engl.) B. Chandler, nom. cons. (1911)
       2. Stylidiaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Candolleaceae F. Muell., nom. illeg. (1883)
     4. Menyanthales T. Yamaz. ex Takht. (1997)
       1. Menyanthaceae (Dumort.) Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
    2. Asteranae Takht. (1967)
     1. Calycerales Takht. ex Reveal (1996)
       1. Calyceraceae R. Br. ex Rich., nom. cons. (1820)
                Boopidaceae Cass. (1816)
     2. Asterales Lindl. (1833)
                Ambrosiales Dumort. (1829)
                Carduales Small (1903)
       1. Asteraceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1822)
                Acarnaceae Link (1829)
                Ambrosiaceae Link, nom. cons. (1829)
                Anthemidaceae Martinov (1820)
                Aposeridaceae Raf. (1838)
                Arctotaceae Bessey (1914)
                Artemisiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Athanasiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Calendulaceae Link (1829)
                Carduaceae Dumort. (1822)
                Centaureaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cichoriaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cnicaceae Vest (1818)
                Compositae Giseke, nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1792)
                Coreopsidaceae Link (1829)
                Cynaraceae Durande (1782)
                Echinopaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1822)
                Eupatoriaceae Martinov (1820)
                Gnaphaliaceae Link ex Rudolphi (1830)
                Heleniaceae Raf. (1824)
                Helianthaceae Dumort. (1822)
                Helichrysaceae Link (1829)
                Inulaceae Bessey (1914)
                Lactucaceae Drude (1879)
                Lampsanaceae Martinov, nom. illeg. (1820)
                Matricariaceae Voigt (1845)
                Mutisiaceae Burnett (1835)
                Nassauviaceae Burmeist. (1837)
                Partheniaceae Link (1829)
                Perdiciaceae Link (1829)
                Picridaceae Martinov (1820)
                Santolinaceae Martinov (1820)
                Senecionaceae Spenn. (1834)
                Serratulaceae Martinov (1820)
                Tanacetaceae Vest (1818)
                Vernoniaceae Burmeist. (1837)
                Xanthiaceae Vest (1818)
   11. Lamiidae Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
    1. Gentiananae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Gentianales Lindl. (1833)
                Chironiales Griseb. (1854)
                Loganiales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Gelsemiaceae (G. Don) Struwe & V. Albert (1995)
       2. Loganiaceae R. Br. ex Mart., nom. cons. (1827)
       3. Strychnaceae DC. ex Perleb (1818)
                Gardneriaceae Wall. ex Perleb (1838)
       4. Antoniaceae Hutch. (1959)
       5. Spigeliaceae Mart. (1827)
       6. Gentianaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Chironiaceae Horan. (1843)
                Coutoubeaceae Martinov (1820)
                Obolariaceae Martinov (1820)
                Potaliaceae Mart. (1827)
       7. Saccifoliaceae Maguire & Pires (1978)
       8. Geniostomaceae Struwe & V. Albert (1995)
       9. Plocospermataceae Hutch. (1973)
     2. Rubiales Dumort. (1829)
                Cinchonales Lindl. (1835)
                Galiales Bromhead (1838)
                Theligonales Nakai (1942)
       1. Dialypetalanthaceae Rizzini & Occhioni, nom. cons. (1948)
       2. Rubiaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Aparinaceae Adans. (1763)
                Asperulaceae Spenn. (1835)
                Catesbaeaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cephalanthaceae Raf. (1820)
                Cinchonaceae Batsch (1802)
                Coffeaceae Batsch (1802)
                Coutareaceae Martinov (1820)
                Galiaceae Lindl. (1836)
                Gardeniaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Guettardaceae Batsch (1802)
                Hedyotidaceae Dumort. (1822)
                Henriqueziaceae Bremek. (1957)
                Houstoniaceae Raf. (1840)
                Hydrophylacaceae Martinov (1820)
                Lippayaceae Meisn. (1838)
                Lygodisodeaceae Bartl. (1830)
                Naucleaceae (DC.) Wernh. (1911)
                Nonateliaceae Martinov (1820)
                Operculariaceae Juss. ex Perleb (1818)
                Pagamaeaceae Martinov (1820)
                Psychotriaceae Rudolphi (1830)
                Randicaceae Martinov (1820)
                Sabiceaceae Martinov (1820)
       3. Theligonaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Cynocrambaceae Endl., nom. illeg. (1841)
       4. Carlemanniaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
     3. Apocynales Bromhead (1838)
                Asclepiadales Dumort. (1829)
                Vincales Horan. (1847)
       1. Apocynaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Asclepiadaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Cerberaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cynanchaceae G. Mey. (1836)
                Ophioxylaceae Mart. ex Perleb (1838)
                Pacouriaceae Martinov (1820)
                Periplocaceae Schltr., nom. cons. (1905)
                Plumeriaceae Horan. (1834)
                Stapeliaceae Horan. (1834)
                Vincaceae Vest (1818)
                Willughbeaceae J. Agardh (1858)
    2. Solananae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Solanales Dumort. (1829)
                Nolanales Lindl. (1835)
       1. Solanaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Atropaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cestraceae Schltdl. (1833)
                Daturaceae Raf. (1828)
                Hyoscyamaceae Vest (1818)
                Lyciaceae Raf. (1840)
                Nicotianaceae Martinov (1820)
                Nolanaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Salpiglossidaceae (Benth.) Hutch. (1969)
       2. Sclerophylacaceae Miers (1848)
       3. Duckeodendraceae Kuhlm. (1950)
       4. Goetzeaceae Miers ex Airy Shaw (1965)
     2. Convolvulales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Convolvulaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cressaceae Raf. (1821)
                Dichondraceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Erycibaceae Endl. ex Meisn. (1840)
                Humbertiaceae Pichon, nom. cons. (1947)
                Poranaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Cuscutaceae (Dumort.) Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     3. Polemoniales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Polemoniaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Cobaeaceae D. Don (1824)
     4. Boraginales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Hydrophyllaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1817)
                Ellisiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Eutocaceae Horan. (1847)
                Hydroleaceae Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
                Sagoneaceae Martinov (1820)
       2. Boraginaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Anchusaceae Vest (1818)
                Buglossaceae Hoffmanns. & Link (1809)
                Cerinthaceae Martinov (1820)
                Cordiaceae R. Br. ex Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Echiaceae Raf. (1837)
                Ehretiaceae Mart. ex Lindl., nom. cons. (1830)
                Heliotropiaceae Schrad. (1819)
                Onosmaceae Martinov (1820)
                Sebestenaceae Vent. (1799)
                Wellstediaceae (Pilg.) Novák (1943)
       3. Tetrachondraceae Wettst. (1924)
       4. Hoplestigmataceae Engl. & Gilg, nom. cons. (1924)
       5. Lennoaceae Solms, nom. cons. (1870)
     5. Limnanthales Nakai (1930)
       1. Limnanthaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1833)
    3. Loasanae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Loasales Bessey (1907)
       1. Loasaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1822)
                Cevalliaceae Griseb. (1854)
                Gronoviaceae Endl. (1841)
    4. Oleanae Takht. (1997)
     1. Oleales Lindl. (1833)
                Jasminales Dumort. (1829)
                Ligustrales Bartl. ex Bisch. (1839)
       1. Oleaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons. (1813-1820)
                Bolivariaceae Griseb. (1838)
                Forestieraceae Endl. (1841)
                Fraxinaceae Vest (1818)
                Jasminaceae Adans. (1763)
                Ligustraceae G. Mey. (1836)
                Lilacaceae Vent., nom. illeg. (1799)
                Nyctanthaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Schreberaceae (Wight) Schnizl. (1843-1870)
                Syringaceae Horan. (1847)
    5. Lamianae Takht. (1967)
     1. Scrophulariales Lindl. (1833)
                Acanthales Lindl. (1833)
                Bignoniales Lindl. (1833)
                Gesneriales Dumort. (1829)
                Globulariales Dumort. (1829)
                Lentibulariales Lindl. (1833)
                Pinguiculales Dumort. (1829)
                Plantaginales Lindl. (1833)
                Rhinanthales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Buddlejaceae K. Wilh. (1910)
       2. Retziaceae Bartl. (1830)
       3. Stilbaceae Kunth, nom. cons. (1831)
       4. Scrophulariaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Aeginetiaceae Livera (1927)
                Antirrhinaceae Pers. (1807)
                Aragoaceae D. Don (1835)
                Buchneraceae (Benth.) Lilja (1870)
                Caprariaceae Martinov (1820)
                Chelonaceae Martinov (1820)
                Digitalidaceae Martinov (1820)
                Ellisiophyllaceae Honda (1930)
                Erinaceae Duvau ex Pfeiff. (1873)
                Euphrasiaceae Martinov (1820)
                Gratiolaceae Martinov (1820)
                Hebenstretiaceae Horan. (1834)
                Limosellaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Linariaceae Martinov (1820)
                Melampyraceae Rich. ex Hook. & Lindl. (1821)
                Orobanchaceae Vent., nom. cons. (1799)
                Oxycladaceae (Miers) Schnizl. (1843-1870)
                Paulowniaceae Nakai (1949)
                Pedicularidaceae Juss. (1789)
                Phelypaeaceae Horan. (1834)
                Rhinanthaceae Vent. (1799)
                Schlegeliaceae (A.H. Gentry) Reveal (1996)
                Selaginaceae Choisy, nom. cons. (1823)
                Sibthorpiaceae D. Don (1835)
                Verbasaceae Raf. (1821)
                Veronicaceae Durande (1782)
       5. Oftiaceae Takht. & Reveal (1993)
                Spielmanniaceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
       6. Globulariaceae DC., nom. cons. (1805)
       7. Gesneriaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1822)
                Belloniaceae Martinov (1820)
                Besleriaceae Raf. (1838)
                Cyrtandraceae Jack (1823)
                Didymocarpaceae D. Don (1822)
                Ramondaceae Godr. (1850)
       8. Plantaginaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Littorellaceae Gray (1821)
                Psylliaceae Horan. (1834)
       9. Bignoniaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Crescentiaceae Dumort. (1829)
       10. Pedaliaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Sesamaceae R. Br. ex Bercht. & J. Presl (1820)
       11. Martyniaceae Stapf, nom. cons. (1895)
       12. Trapellaceae Honda & Sakisaka (1930)
       13. Myoporaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Bontiaceae Horan. (1834)
       14. Acanthaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Justiciaceae Raf. (1838)
                Mendonciaceae Bremek. (1954)
                Meyeniaceae Sreem. (1977)
                Nelsoniaceae (Nees) Sreem. (1977)
                Thomandersiaceae Sreem. (1977)
                Thunbergiaceae (Dumort.) Lilja (1870)
       15. Lentibulariaceae Rich., nom. cons. (1808)
                Pinguiculaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Utriculariaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. cons  (1813-1820)
     2. Lamiales Bromhead (1838)
                Verbenales Horan. (1847)
       1. Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons. (1805)
                Durantaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Lantanaceae Martinov (1820)
                Petreaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       2. Phrymaceae Schauer, nom. cons. (1847)
       3. Cyclocheilaceae Marais (1981)
       4. Symphoremataceae (Meisn.) Mold. ex Reveal & Hoogland (1991)
       5. Avicenniaceae Endl. (1841)
       6. Viticaceae Juss. (1789)
       7. Lamiaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Aegiphilaceae Raf. (1838)
                Chloanthaceae Hutch. (1959)
                Glechomaceae Martinov (1820)
                Labiatae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
                Melittidaceae Martinov (1820)
                Menthaceae Burnett (1835)
                Nepetaceae Horan. (1834)
                Nesogenaceae Marais (1981)
                Salazariaceae F.A. Barkley (1975)
                Salviaceae Raf. (1837)
                Scutellaraceae Caruel (1894)
                Siphonanthaceae Raf. (1838)
     3. Callitrichales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Callitrichaceae Link, nom. cons. (1821)
                Stellariaceae MacMill., nom. illeg. (1892)
     4. Hydrostachyales Diels ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Hydrostachyaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1898)
     5. Hippuridales Pulle ex Reveal (1996)
       1. Hippuridaceae Link, nom. cons. (1821)
  2. Liliopsida Scop. (1760)
                Aropsida Bartl. (1830)
                Bromeliopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Hydrocharitopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Juncopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Liriopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Najadiopsida Hoffmanns. & Link (1809)
                Orchidopsida Bartl. (1830)
                Pandanopsida Brongn. (1843)
                Phoenicopsida Brongn. (1843)
   1. Liliidae Takht. (1967)
    1. Lilianae Takht. (1967)
     1. Melanthiales R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
                Veratrales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Tofieldiaceae Takht. (1994)
       2. Melanthiaceae Batsch, nom. cons. (1802)
                Veratraceae Salisb. (1807)
       3. Japonoliriaceae Takht. (1996)
       4. Xerophyllaceae Takht. (1996)
       5. Nartheciaceae Fr. ex Bjurzon (1846)
                Abaminaceae J. Agardh, nom. illeg. (1858)
                Lophiolaceae Nakai (1943)
       6. Heloniadaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       7. Chionographidaceae Takht. (1996)
     2. Colchicales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Tricyrtidaceae Takht., nom. cons. prop. (1997)
                Compsoaceae Horan. (1834)
       2. Burchardiaceae Takht. (1996)
       3. Uvulariaceae A. Gray ex Kunth, nom. cons. (1843)
       4. Campynemataceae Dumort. (1829)
       5. Scoliopaceae Takht. (1996)
       6. Colchicaceae DC., nom. cons. (1805)
                Bulbocodiaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Merenderaceae Mirb. (1804)
       7. Calochortaceae Dumort. (1829)
     3. Trilliales Takht. (1996)
                Paridales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Trilliaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1846)
                Paridaceae Dumort. (1827)
     4. Liliales Perleb (1826)
       1. Liliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Erythroniaceae Martinov (1820)
                Fritillariaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Liriaceae Batsch (1786)
                Tulipaceae Batsch (1786)
       2. Medeolaceae (S. Wats.) Takht. (1987)
     5. Alstroemeriales Hutch. (1934)
       1. Alstroemeriaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     6. Iridales Raf. (1815)
                Ixiales Lindl. (1835)
       1. Isophysidaceae (Hutch.) F.A. Barkley (1948)
                Hewardiaceae Nakai, nom. illeg. (1943)
       2. Geosiridaceae Jonker, nom. cons. (1939)
       3. Iridaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Crocaceae Vest (1818)
                Galaxiaceae Raf. (1836)
                Gladiolaceae Raf. (1838)
                Ixiaceae Horan. (1834)
     7. Tecophilaeales Traub ex Reveal (1993)
       1. Ixioliriaceae (Pax) Nakai (1943)
       2. Lanariaceae H. Huber ex R. Dahlgren & A.E. van Wyk (1988)
       3. Walleriaceae (R. Dahlgren) Takht., nom. cons. prop. (1994)
                Androsynaceae Salisb. (1866)
       4. Tecophilaeaceae Leyb., nom. cons. (1862)
                Conantheraceae (D. Don) Hook.f. (1873)
                Cyanellaceae Salisb. (1866)
       5. Cyanastraceae Engl., nom. cons. (1900)
       6. Eriospermaceae Endl. (1841)
     8. Burmanniales Heintze (1927)
       1. Burmanniaceae Blume, nom. cons. (1827)
                Tripterellaceae Dumort., nom. illeg. (1829)
       2. Thismiaceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
       3. Corsiaceae Becc., nom. cons. (1878)
     9. Hypoxidales Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Hypoxidaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1814)
     10. Orchidales Raf. (1815)
       1. Orchidaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Apostasiaceae Lindl. (1833)
                Cypripediaceae Lindl. (1833)
                Limodoraceae Horan. (1847)
                Neottiaceae Horan. (1834)
                Neuwiediaceae (Burns-Bal. & V.A. Funk) R. Dahlgren ex Reveal & Hoogland (1991)
                Vanillaceae Lindl. (1835)
     11. Amaryllidales Bromhead (1840)
                Agavales Hutch. (1934)
                Alliales Traub (1972)
                Narcissales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Hemerocallidaceae R. Br. (1810)
       2. Hyacinthaceae Batsch (1786)
                Eucomidaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Lachenaliaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Ornithogalaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Scillaceae Vest (1818)
       3. Alliaceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
                Agapanthaceae Voigt (1850)
                Cepaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Gilliesiaceae Lindl. (1826)
                Milulaceae Traub (1972)
                Themidaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Tulbaghiaceae Salisb. (1866)
       4. Hesperocallidaceae Traub (1972)
       5. Hostaceae B. Mathew (1988)
                Funkiaceae Horan., nom. illeg. (1834)
       6. Agavaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1841)
                Yuccaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       7. Amaryllidaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. cons. (1805)
                Brunsvigiaceae Horan. (1834)
                Crinaceae Vest (1818)
                Cyrtanthaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Galanthaceae G. Mey. (1836)
                Gethyllidaceae Raf. (1838)
                Haemanthaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Leucojaceae Batsch (1786)
                Narcissaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Oporanthaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Pancratiaceae Horan. (1847)
                Strumariaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Zephyranthaceae Salisb. (1866)
     12. Asparagales Bromhead (1838)
                Asteliales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Convallariaceae Horan. (1834)
                Aspidistraceae Endl. (1841)
                Platymetraceae Salisb., nom. illeg. (1866)
                Polygonataceae Salisb. (1866)
                Tupistraceae Schnizl. (1846)
       2. Ophiopogonaceae Endl. (1841)
                Peliosanthaceae Salisb. (1866)
       3. Ruscaceae Sprengl. ex Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
       4. Asparagaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       5. Dracaenaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Sansevieriaceae Nakai (1936)
       6. Nolinaceae Nakai (1943)
       7. Blandfordiaceae R. Dahlgren & Clifford (1985)
       8. Herreriaceae Endl. (1841)
       9. Phormiaceae J. Agardh (1858)
       10. Dianellaceae Salisb. (1866)
       11. Doryanthaceae R. Dahlgren & Clifford (1985)
       12. Asteliaceae Dumort. (1829)
       13. Asphodelaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       14. Aloaceae Batsch (1802)
       15. Anthericaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Johnsoniaceae Lotsy (1911)
                Laxmanniaceae Bubani (1901-1902)
       16. Aphyllanthaceae Burnett (1835)
     13. Xanthorrhoeales Takth., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Baxteriaceae Takht. (1996)
       2. Lomandraceae Lotsy (1911)
                Xerotaceae Endl., nom. illeg. (1838)
       3. Dasypogonaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Kingiaceae Endl. (1838)
       4. Calectasiaceae Endl. (1838)
       5. Xanthorrhoeaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     14. Hanguanales R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Hanguanaceae Airy Shaw (1965)
    2. Dioscoreanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Stemonales Takht. (1995)
       1. Stemonaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1887)
                Roxburghiaceae Wall. (1832)
       2. Croomiaceae Nakai (1937)
       3. Pentastemonaceae Duyfjes (1992)
     2. Smilacales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Luzuriagaceae Lotsy (1911)
                Eustrephaceae Chupov (1994)
                Geitonoplesiaceae R. Dahlgr. ex Conran (1994)
       2. Philesiaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Lapageriaceae Kunth (1850)
       3. Rhipogonaceae Conran & Cliffford (1985)
       4. Smilacaceae Vent., nom. cons. (1799)
       5. Petermanniaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
     3. Dioscoreales Hook.f. (1876)
                Tamales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Stenomeridaceae J. Agardh, nom. cons. (1858)
       2. Trichopodaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
       3. Avetraceae Takht. (1997)
       4. Dioscoreaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Tamaceae Martinov (1820)
                Tamnaceae J. Kickx f. (1826)
     4. Taccales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Taccaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
   2. Commelinidae Takht. (1967)
                Zingiberidae Cronquist (1978)
    1. Bromelianae R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Bromeliales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Bromeliaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Tillandsiaceae Wilbr. (1834)
     2. Velloziales R. Dahlgren ex Reveal (1992)
       1. Velloziaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1841)
                Acanthochlamydaceae (Shou C. Chen) P.C. Kao (1989)
                Barbaceniaceae Arn. (1832)
    2. Pontederianae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Philydrales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Philydraceae Link, nom. cons. (1821)
     2. Pontederiales Hook.f. (1876)
       1. Pontederiaceae Kunth, nom. cons. (1816)
                Heterantheraceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Unisemataceae Raf. (1837)
     3. Haemodorales Hutch. (1934)
       1. Haemodoraceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Dilatridaceae M. Roem. (1840)
                Wachendorfiaceae Herb. (1837)
                Xiphidiaceae Dumort. (1829)
       2. Conostylidaceae (Pax) Takht. (1987)
    3. Zingiberanae Takht. ex Reveal (1993)
     1. Musales Reveal (1997)
       1. Strelitziaceae (K. Schum.) Hutch. (1934)
       2. Musaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       3. Heliconiaceae (A. Rich.) Nakai (1941)
     2. Lowiales Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Lowiaceae Ridl., nom. cons. (1924)
     3. Zingiberales Griseb. (1854)
                Amomales Lindl. (1835)
       1. Zingiberaceae Lindl., nom. cons. (1835)
                Alpiniaceae R. Br. ex Rudolphi (1830)
                Amomaceae J. St.-Hil. (1805)
                Curcumaceae Dumort. (1829)
       2. Costaceae (Meisn.) Nakai (1941)
     4. Cannales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Cannaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       2. Marantaceae Petersen, nom. cons. (1888)
    4. Commelinanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Commelinales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Commelinaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Cartonemataceae Pichon, nom. cons. (1946)
                Ephemeraceae Batsch, nom. illeg. (1802)
                Tradescantiaceae Salisb. (1807)
     2. Mayacales Nakai (1943)
       1. Mayacaceae Kunth (1842)
     3. Xyridales Lindl. (1846)
       1. Xyridaceae C. Agardh, nom. cons. (1823)
                Abolbodaceae Nakai (1943)
     4. Rapateales Colella ex Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Rapateaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     5. Eriocaulales Nakai (1930)
       1. Eriocaulaceae P. Beauv. ex Desv. (1828)
    5. Hydatellanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Hydatellales Cronquist (1980)
       1. Hydatellaceae U. Hamann, nom. cons. (1976)
    6. Juncanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Juncales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Juncaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
       2. Thurniaceae Engl., nom. cons. (1907)
     2. Cyperales Hutch. (1934)
       1. Cyperaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Caricaceae Burnett, nom. illeg. (1835)
                Kobresiaceae Gilly (1952)
                Papyraceae Burnett (1835)
                Scirpaceae Batsch (1786)
    7. Poanae Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
     1. Flagellariales Takht., nom. inval. (1997)
       1. Flagellariaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
     2. Restionales J.H. Schaffn. (1929)
       1. Joinvilleaceae Toml. & A.C. Sm. (1970)
       2. Restionaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Elegiaceae Raf. (1838)
       3. Anarthriaceae D.F. Cutler & Airy Shaw (1965)
       4. Ecdeiocoleaceae D.F. Cutler & Airy Shaw (1965)
     3. Centrolepidales R. Dahlgren ex Takht. (1997)
       1. Centrolepidaceae Endl., nom. cons. (1836)
                Devauxiaceae Dumort., nom. illeg. (1829)
     4. Poales Small (1903)
                Avenales Bromhead (1838)
       1. Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnh., nom. cons. (1895)
                Aegilopaceae Martinov (1820)
                Agrostidaceae Burnett (1835)
                Alopecuraceae Martinov (1820)
                Andropogonaceae Martinov (1820)
                Anomochloaceae Nakai (1943)
                Arundinaceae (Dumort.) Hochst. (1850)
                Arundinellaceae (Stapf) Herter (1940)
                Avenaceae Martinov (1820)
                Bambusaceae Burnett (1835)
                Chloridaceae (Bercht. & J. Presl) Herter (1940)
                Eragrostidaceae (Stapf) Herter (1940)
                Festucaceae (Dumort.) Herter (1952)
                Gramineae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
                Hordeaceae Burnett (1835)
                Lepturaceae (Dumort.) Herter (1940)
                Maydaceae Martinov, nom. illeg. (1820)
                Melicaceae Martinov (1820)
                Miliaceae Burnett (1835)
                Nardaceae Martinov (1820)
                Oryzaceae Burnett (1835)
                Panicaceae Voigt (1845)
                Pappophoraceae (Kunth) Herter (1940)
                Parianaceae Nakai (1943)
                Phalaridaceae Burnett (1835)
                Pharaceae (Stapf) Herter (1940)
                Saccharaceae Martinov (1820)
                Spartinaceae Burnett (1835)
                Sporobolaceae Herter (1941)
                Stipaceae Burnett (1835)
                Streptochaetaceae Nakai (1943)
                Tristeginaceae (Link) Herter, nom. illeg. (1940)
                Triticaceae Hochst. (1848)
                Zeaceae A. Kern. (1891)
   3. Arecidae Takht. (1967)
    1. Arecanae Takht. (1967)
     1. Arecales Bromhead (1840)
                Cocosales Nakai (1930)
       1. Arecaceae Schultz Sch., nom. cons. (1832)
                Acristaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Borassaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Calamaceae Kunth ex Perleb (1838)
                Ceroxylaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Chamaedoreaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Cocosaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Coryphaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Geonomataceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Iriarteaceae O.F. Cook & Doyle (1913)
                Lepidocaryaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Malortieaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Manicariaceae O.F. Cook (1910)
                Nypaceae Brongn. ex Le Maout & Decne. (1868)
                Palmae Juss., nom. cons. et nom. alt. (1789)
                Phoenicaceae Burnett (1835)
                Phytellephaceae Mart. ex Perleb (1838)
                Pseudophoenicaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
                Sabalaceae Schultz Sch. (1832)
                Sagaceae Schultz Sch., nom. illeg. (1832)
                Synechanthaceae O.F. Cook (1913)
   4. Alismatidae Takht. (1967)
    1. Alismatanae Takht. (1967)
                Butomanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
                Najadanae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Butomales Hutch. (1934)
       1. Butomaceae Rich., nom. cons. (1815)
     2. Hydrocharitales Dumort. (1829)
                Elodeales Nakai (1950)
                Vallisneriales Nakai (1949)
       1. Hydrocharitaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Blyxaceae (Aschers. & Gürcke) Nakai (1949)
                Elodeaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Enhalaceae Nakai (1943)
                Stratiotaceae Link (1829)
                Vallisneriaceae Link (1829)
       2. Thalassiaceae Nakai (1943)
       3. Halophilaceae J. Agardh (1858)
     3. Najadales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Najadaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
     4. Alismatales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Limnocharitaceae Takht. ex Cronquist (1981)
       2. Alismataceae Vent., nom. cons. (1799)
                Damasoniaceae Nakai (1943)
                Elismataceae Nakai, nom. illeg. (1943)
     5. Aponogetonales Hutch. (1934)
       1. Aponogetonaceae J. Agardh (1858)
     6. Juncaginales Hutch. (1934)
                Scheuchzeriales B. Boivin (1956)
       1. Scheuchzeriaceae Rudolphi, nom. cons. (1830)
       2. Juncaginaceae Rich. (1808)
                Triglochinaceae Chev. (1827)
       3. Lilaeaceae Dumort. (1829)
                Heterostylaceae Hutch. (1934)
       4. Maundiaceae Nakai (1943)
     7. Potamogetonales Dumort. (1829)
                Ruppiales Nakai (1950)
       1. Potamogetonaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
                Hydrogetonaceae Link (1829)
       2. Ruppiaceae Horan. ex Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
     8. Posidoniales Nakai (1943)
       1. Posidoniaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
                Cauliniaceae J. Presl, nom. illeg. (1846)
     9. Cymodoceales Nakai (1943)
       1. Zannichelliaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
       2. Cymodoceaceae N. Taylor, nom. cons. (1909)
     10. Zosterales Nakai (1943)
       1. Zosteraceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
   5. Triurididae Takht. ex Reveal (1992)
    1. Triuridanae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Petrosaviales Takht. (1997)
       1. Petrosaviaceae Hutch., nom. cons. (1934)
     2. Triuridales Hook.f. (1876)
       2. Triuridaceae Gardner, nom. cons. (1843)
                Lacandoniaceae E. Martínes & Ramos (1989)
   6. Aridae Takht. (1997)
    1. Aranae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Arales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Araceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)
                Arisaraceae Raf. (1838)
                Caladiaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Callaceae Rchb. ex Bartl. (1830)
                Cryptocorynaceae J. Agardh (1858)
                Dracontiaceae Salisb. (1866)
                Lentiscaceae Horan. (1843)
                Orontiaceae Bartl. (1830)
                Pothoaceae Raf. (1838)
       2. Pistiaceae Rich. ex C. Agardh (1822)
       3. Lemnaceae Gray, nom. cons. (1821)
                Wolffiaceae Bubani (1901-1902)
     2. Acorales Reveal (1996)
       1. Acoraceae Martinov (1820)
    2. Cyclanthanae Thorne ex Reveal (1996)
     1. Cyclanthales Nakai (1930)
       1. Cyclanthaceae Dumort., nom. cons. (1829)
    3. Pandananae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Pandanales Lindl. (1833)
       1. Pandanaceae R. Br., nom. cons. (1810)
                Freycinetiaceae Brongn. ex Le Maout & Decne. (1868)
    4. Typhanae Thorne ex Reveal (1992)
     1. Typhales Dumort. (1829)
       1. Sparganiaceae Rudolphi, nom. cons. (1830)
       2. Typhaceae Juss., nom. cons. (1789)