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    KEY FOR IDENTIFICATION OF ORCHID GENERAIN THE FLORA OF VIETNAM

If I should have any chance getting names for the wild orchids I find on my expedition around in the wild Vietnam, I will have to key them. Below are this great tool I found, which have been made by Prof. Leonid Averyanov The technical terms are explained on this page.

Orchidaceae Juss.
1789, Gen. Pl.: 64 (sub "Orchideae"). - Fam. Apostasiaceae Lindl., 1833, Nixus Pl.: 22 (sub "Apostasieae"). - Fam. Cypripediaceae Lindl., 1833, l.c.: 22 (sub "Cypripedieae"). - Fam. Neottiaceae Horan., 1834, Prim. Lin. Syst. Nat.: 50. - Fam. Vanillaceae Lindl., 1835, Key Bot.: 73. - Fam. Limodoraceae Horan., 1847, Сharact. Ess. Fam. Reg. Veg.: 44.

Typе: Orchis L.
750-800(158) genera and 20000-25000(1005) species. Cosmopolites, except extra arid, salted, and polar areas.

1. Plants green, photosynthetic, with normal green leaves, green stem or green roots

..................................................................................................... 2
- Mycotrophic (saprophytic), achlorophyllous leafless plants, without any green parts
 
.................................................................................................. 151
2. Flowers with 2-3 fertile stamens, pollen waxy, amorphous, sticky or powdery, not forming distinct pollinia
 
..................................................................................................... 3
- Flowers with 1 fertile stamen, pollen mass commonly forming coherent pollinia
 
..................................................................................................... 5
3. Leaves thin, plicate; all tepals sub-similar, flowers sub-actinomorphic, with 2-3 stamens; staminode if present small, inconspicuous; ovary with 3 chambers
 
..................................................................................................... 4
- Leaves coriaceous, conduplicate; tepals very unequal, lateral sepals joined, lip deeply saccate; flowers distinctly zygomorphic, with 2 lateral stamens and large shield-like median staminode; ovary with 1 chamber
 
................................................................................... Paphiopedilum
4. Tepals more than 1.5 cm long, ovate; flowers with 3 stamens; inflorescence simple, erect
 
......................................................................................... Neuwiedia
- Tepals less than 1.5 cm long, narrowly-ovate to lanceolate; flowers with 2 stamens; inflorescence normally branched, curved and spreading
 
......................................................................................... Apostasia
5. Mainly terrestrial and lithophytic plants without pseudobulbs; leaves plicate, thin (not succulent), not articulated at the vase; inflorescence terminal; anther wall not caducous; pollinia soft, granular or sectile
 
..................................................................................................... 6
- Terrestrial, lithophytic and epiphytic plants; shoots sympodial pseudobulbous, or monopodial thin and rigid; leaves commonly conduplicate, coriaceous or succulent, usually articulate at the base; inflorescence lateral, rare terminal; anther wall form caducous cap (operculum); pollinia hard, very rare sectile
 
..................................................................................................... 7
6. Plants with creeping rhizome or underground tubers; anther erect or slightly incumbent; pollinia apically attached to viscidium; rostellum elongate
 
..................................................................................................... 8
- Plants with underground root-stem tuberoids; anther erect, at the base firmly united with column; pollinia sectile with caudiculae basally attached to viscidium or viscidia, rare without caudicles; rostellum in form of fold protruding between thecae
 
.................................................................................................... 28
7. Sympodial plants; pollinia soft, waxy, rare cartilaginous, without stalks or caudiculae, very rare with stipes or hamulus; anther erect in early stages of ontogeny
 
..................................................................................................... 38
- Sympodial or monopodial plants; pollinia solid, cartilaginous or bony, commonly with stipes; anther incumbent in early stages of ontogeny, often strongly deflexed at maturity
 
................................................................................................... 85
8 (6). Stem erect, with a close, more or less dense fascicle of roots at the base
 
..................................................................................................... 9
- Stem decumbent, rhizome-like, rooting at the nodes, at the apex ascending and bearing a terminal long stalked inflorescence
 
..................................................................................................... 14
9. All normal leaves radical, the stem only with rudimentary leaves and sheaths
 
..................................................................................................... 10
- Normal leaves distant along all length of the stem, or stem at the middle with 2 opposite leaves
 
................................................................................................... 11
10. Flowers less than 5 mm across, resupinate, in dense twisted spike; leaves 3-10, narrowly-lanceolate to linear
 
........................................................................................ Spiranthes
- Flowers 1.5-2.5 cm across, not resupinate, in loose not twisted spike; leaves 1-2 (3), ovate
 
...................................................................................... Cryptostylis
11. Stems weak, slender, 1-1.5 mm thick, less than 15 cm tall; at the middle with 2 broadly cordate opposite leaves1-2(3)cm wide
 
............................................................................................ Listera
- Stems robust and rigid, more than 1.5 mm thick, more than 15 cm tall; with numerous distant leaves, rarely with 2 sub-opposite leaves 5-12 cm wide
 
................................................................................................... 12
12. Stems 1.5-3 m tall; inflorescence normally branching; sepals and petals 2-3 cm long
 
...................................................................................... Corymborkis
- Stems less than 1.5 m tall; inflorescence simple; sepals and petals 5-15 mm long
 
................................................................................................... 13
13. Flowers, in many flowered spike or in dense heads; sepals and petals white, 0.6-1 cm long; lip simple narrowly-ovate, boat-shaped
 
........................................................................................... Tropidia
- Flowers in lax few flowered raceme; sepals and petals yellow-green or pink-purple; 1.2-1.8 cm long; lip distinctly 3-lobed, cup-shaped
 
.......................................................................................... Epipactis
14 (8). Flowers not resupinate (or partially resupinate), lip commonly turned upwards
 
................................................................................................... 15
- Flowers resupinate, lip commonly tuned down
 
................................................................................................... 16
15. Leaves uniformly green; lip and column not twisted
 
........................................................................................... Hetaeria
- Leaves with contrast golden or reddish reticulated veins; lip and column distinctly twisted
 
........................................................................................... Macodes
16. Spur at the base of lip containing neither glands nor hairs
 
.................................................................................................... 17
- Spur hairy within or with papillae or glands on either internal lateral side
 
.................................................................................................... 18
17. Spur short and fat, epichile of lip broad triangular acute without any ornaments; sepalsolive-green, petals and lip white
 
........................................................................................ Erythrodes
- Spur long and slender, epichile of the lip truncate to slightly bilobed; disc of lip with two flat calli at the middle and a thick lamella extending to the tip; tepals including lip white with pink blotches Herpysma
18. Spur densely haired within
 
......................................................................................... Goodyera
- Spur with a single gland or group of papillae on either internal lateral side
 
................................................................................................... 19
19. Spur with group of dense numerous, long, fat papillae on either internal lateral side; lip strongly S-bended; mesochile with two tall conspicuous semicircular longitudinal keels
 
...................................................................................... Orchipedum
- Spur with a single gland or few papillae on either internal lateral side; lip not strongly bended; mesochile without keels, rare with 1-2 rather low longitudinal keels
 
................................................................................................... 20
20. Apex of the lip not widening into a blade, broadly acute, fleshy
 
..................................................................................... Vrydagzynea
- Apex of the lip widened to a flat thin commonly bilobed blade often dentate or fringed alongmargin
 
................................................................................................... 21
21. Mesochile of the lip form distinct conspicuous claw as long as epichile or longer
 
................................................................................................... 22
- Mesochile of the lip very short, appear as constriction between cup-like base of lip and epichile
 
................................................................................................... 26
22. Claw of lip fringed or toothed along eithe rlateral side
 
................................................................................................... 23
- Claw of lip straight along lateral margins
 
................................................................................................... 24
23. Lip spurred, the spur protruding between the lateral sepals; stigma lobes 2, on either side of base of rostellum; leaves usually deep velvety green, brown or black with silvery, golden or reddish net of veins
 
.....................................................................................Anoectochilus
- Lip with small, globular, saccate base, more or less enclosed by the bases of the lateral sepals; stigma entire; leaves commonly uniform green, rare plant aphyllous
 
......................................................................................Odontochilus
24. Tiny plants 4-6 cm tall with leaves about 1 cm long; inflorescence 1-2-flowered; column short, not twisted; stigmas on short process
 
........................................................................................ Myrmechis
- Plants normally larger than 6 cm tall with leaves much longer than 1 cm; inflorescence normally few to many-flowered; column twisted or not twisted; stigmas sessile
 
................................................................................................... 25
25. Column and lip distinctly twisted; mesochile without longitudinal keels
 
.............................................................................................. Ludisia
- Lip and column not twisted, rarely slightly twisted; mesochile with 1-2 more or less conspicuous longitudinal keels
 
........................................................................................ Rhomboda
26 (21). Leaves black; epichile 3-lobed, brightly yellow, with 4 close callosities on the disc
 
......................................................................................... Zeuxinella
- Leaves green to gray-green; epichile 2-lobed, flat, without any ornament
 
................................................................................................... 27
27. Sepals free; epichile not toothed or fringed along margin; plant with creeping stem rooting at nodes
 
............................................................................................ Zeuxine
- Sepals connate on half way of their length, epichile distinctly toothed or fringed along margin; plants with succulent creeping rootless articulate rhizome
 
....................................................................................... Cheirostylis
28 (6). Tiny plants less than 6 cm tall with 1 cordate leaf and single large flower; lip with 2 short spurs; lateral sepals filiform, much narrower than large broad median sepal; pollinia without caudicles
 
........................................................................................... Corybas
- Plants regularly taller than 6 cm, with 1 to many leaves; inflorescence with few to many flowers, rare with 1 flower; lip with 1 spur or sac, rarely spurless; all sepals ovate to elliptic, subsimilar; pollinia with caudicles and basal viscidia
 
................................................................................................... 29
29. One or two stigmas distinctly concave
 
................................................................................................... 30
- Stigmas convex or stalked, rarely hardly concave
 
................................................................................................... 32
30. Many-leaved stem with distant leaves; floral bracts larger than flowers, similar to normal leaves; tuberoids palmate or attenuate
 
.................................................................................. Brachycorythis
- Plant with 1-2(3) radical leaves; floral bracts inconspicuous, shorter than leaves; tuberoids attenuate to globose
 
................................................................................................... 31
31. Lip deeply 3-lobed; plant with 1-2(3) ovate to narrowly ovate, uniformly green leaves; stigma divided into 2 lobes; rostellum very small inconspicuous; tuberoids attenuate
 
...................................................................................... Amitostigma
- Lip entire or very indistinctly trilobe; plant with 1(2) circular to broadly ovate, purple-violet variegated leaves; stigma entire, V-shaped; rostellum large elongate, horn-shaped, curved upwards; tuberoids globose
 
........................................................................................... Hemipilia
32(29). Rostellum very large, horn-shaped, turned upward, as high as or higher than anther
 
................................................................................................... 33
- Rostellum much smaller, inconspicuous, shorter than half of column length, sometimes hardly visible
 
................................................................................................... 34
33. Plants 6-10 cm tall with 1-2 narrowly-lanceolate leaves; inflorescence normally with 1(2) flowers; flowers white; lip entire or indistinctly 3-lobed
 
......................................................................................... Diplomeris
- Plants normally taller than 10 cm with 3-10 broadly-lanceolate leaves; inflorescence normally with (1)3-20 flowers; flowers purple, orange-red to deep yellow; lip distinctly 4-lobed
 
................................................................... Habenaria (H. rhodocheila)
34. Two stigma-lobes placed on elongated more or less long stigmaphores extending forward from the column base
 
.......................................................................................... Habenaria
- Stigma-lobes not freely extending in front of column
 
................................................................................................... 35
35. Thecas at their base extending from column base; rostellum forming a broad band above the coherent, hardly prominen tstigma-lobes
 
............................................................................................ Pecteilis
- Neither stigma-lobes nor thecas extending in front of column base
 
................................................................................................... 36
36. Lip ligulate, undivided, at the base with long narrow spur not dilated toward apex; stigma sessile, with a single hardly concave surface
 
....................................................................................... Platanthera
- Lip usually 3-lobed; spur if present short saccate or globular; stigma-lobes separate or hardly coherent
 
................................................................................................... 37
37. Lip without spur; 2 large stelidia rise above anther on lateral sides of the column
 
........................................................................................ Herminium
- Lip with short, but distinct spur at the base; stelidia small insignificant, sometimes hardly visible
 
......................................................................................... Peristylus
38 (7). Creeping epiphytic or lithophytic vines with fleshy succulent green stem to 15 m long; pollinia very soft and mealy
 
.............................................................................................. Vanilla
- Stem more or less short, not liana-like; plants sometimes with creeping plagiotropic woodyrhizome up to 2-3 m long; pollinia mealy to hard
 
.................................................................................................... 39
39. Leaves not articulate, circular, broadly cordate or fan-shaped usually appear after flowering; plants with globular underground tuber; pollinia soft, sectile
 
............................................................................................. Nervilia
- Leaves usually articulate, elliptic, ovate and lanceolate to linear; flowering plants commonly have leaves, rarely plants develop flowers before the leaves appear; plants rarely have underground tubers; pollinia mealy to hard, sometimes with caudicles
 
.................................................................................................... 40
40. Pollinia rather hard, 4-8, with or without caudicles; plants commonly epiphytic with or without pseudobulbs
 
.................................................................................................... 41
- Pollinia rather soft, 8, rarely 4, with distinct, but sometimes quite small caudicles; plants commonly terrestrial, often with short vertical stem, plicate leaves and lateral inflorescence
 
.................................................................................................... 43
41. Column not distinctly hooded or winged at the apex; plants commonly with pseudobulbs of several internodes; inflorescence terminal or lateral; pollinia 4-8 with orwithoutcaudicles
 
.................................................................................................... 42
- Column hooded or winged at the apex around anther; plants with pseudobulbs of 1 internode; inflorescence terminal (sometimes superficially appearing as lateral); pollinia 4, hard, with small caudicles
 
.................................................................................................... 59
42. Flowers with a short or no columnfoot; leaves conduplicate or plicate
 
................................................................................................... 64
- Flowers with a prominent columnfoot; leaves always conduplicate
 
................................................................................................... 67
43 (40) Plants with tall erect stem bearing normal numerous distichous leaves
 
.................................................................................................... 44
- Stem creeping, ascending, sometime pseudobulbous, short and flesh, with few sub-radicalleaves
 
................................................................................................... 48
44. Inflorescence terminal
 
................................................................................................... 45
- Inflorescence distinctly lateral
 
................................................................................................... 46
45. Flowers white, 8-12 cm across, lip entire or hardly 3-lobed, white with yellow-orange keels; flower bracts large, thin, deciduous, 3-4 cm long; leaves deciduous, thin, with blue-green waxy surface; lithophytic or epiphytic plant
 
............................................................................................. Thunia
- Sepals and petals white, with pink-purple tint, flowers 3-8 cm across; lip distinctly 3-lobed, pink to purple, commonly with yellow center; flower bracts small, insignificant persistent, usually less than 5 mm long; leaves persistent, rigid, not waxy; terrestrial orlithophyticplant
 
........................................................................................... Arundina
46. Stem at the base inflated, fleshy, pseudobulbous; lip elastically hinged to the column and connected with column base with 2 elastic flanges
 
....................................................................................... Plocoglottis
- Stem at the base not inflated; lip movably or firmly joined to columnfoot or column base, not connected with column with elastic flanges
 
................................................................................................... 47
47. Lip spurred; inflorescence normally with 2-4(6) flowers; flowers purple-violet, 5- 8 cm across
 
.............................................................................................. Phaius
- Lip without spur or sac at the base; inflorescence normally with more than 10 flowers; flowers white to yellow-greenish, less than 3 cm across
 
.............................................................................. Cephalantheropsis
48(43). Stem fleshy, creeping, rooting at nodes with ascending apex and few distant leaves
 
................................................................................................... 49
- Stem pseudobulbous, short and flesh, with few sub-radical leaves
 
................................................................................................... 51
49. Flowers not resupinate; lip with short spur, turned upward
 
.................................................................................. Nephelaphyllum
- Flowers resupinate; lip with long slender spur or spurless, turned down
 
................................................................................................... 50
50. Lip with a long slender spur; inflorescence 1-flowered
 
......................................................................................... Hancockia
- Lipspurless; inflorescence normally many-flowered
 
.................................................................................... Mischobulbоm
51 (48). Plants with underground tuberous rhizome
 
................................................................................................... 52
- Stem pseudobulbous, green, short and flesh, sometimes covered with leaf sheaths
 
................................................................................................... 55
52. Flowers purple-violet, not resupinate; sepals connate, forming a narrow tube held at right angle to the ovary
 
..................................................................................... Anthogonium
- Flowers white, pinkish to purple-violet and yellow-orange, resupinate; sepals free
 
................................................................................................... 53
53. Inflorescence terminal; leaves elliptic to ovate
 
............................................................................................... Bletia
- Inflorescence lateral; leaves linear to lanceolate, rare narrowly elliptic
 
................................................................................................... 54
54. Inflorescence normally many-flowered, dense, secund spike; flowers not widely opening, less than 1 cm across, light pinkish; each growth normally with 1(2) linear leaves
 
...................................................................................... Pachystoma
- Inflorescence normally few-flowered, all-faced, loose raceme; flowers widely opening, normally more than 1 cm across, pink-violet or yellow; each growth normally with several lanceolate to narrowly elliptic leaves
 
..................................................................................... Spathoglottis
55 (51). Pseudobulbs consist of 1 internode
 
................................................................................................... 56
- Pseudobulbs consist of 2 or more internodes
 
................................................................................................... 57
56. Pseudobulbs 2-leaved; leaves sessile with broad base; inflorescence, flower bracts, pedicel, ovary and sepals outside brown hairy
 
............................................................................................. Eriodes
- Pseudobulbs 1-leaved; leaves petiolate with long distinct petiole, all plant hairless
 
.............................................................................................. Tainia
57. Each growth with 1-2 leaves; sepals connate, forming broad urn-like tube; lip mobile on a large column foot
 
................................................................................ Acanthephippium
- Each growth usually with more than 2 leaves; sepals free; lip not mobile, firmly attached to the column base
 
.................................................................................................... 58
58. Column margins over nearly their whole length connate with base of lip
 
............................................................................................ Calanthe
- Lip only connate with column at or near its base
 
............................................................................................... Phaius
59(41). Lip at base flat or slightly concave
 
.................................................................................................... 60
- Lip at base saccate
 
.................................................................................................... 62
60. Lip at base S-curved in lateral view; sepals and petals about equal width
 
............................................................................................. Panisea
- Lip at the base more or less flat, not S-curved; petals usually narrower than sepals
 
.................................................................................................... 61
61. Lip entire to obscurely lobed; bulbs and leaves short-living annual; leaves thin, herbaceous, deciduous; inflorescence usually 1-flowered; lip at base convolute around base of column
 
............................................................................................. Pleione
- Lip usually distinctly 3-lobed; bulbs and leaves long-living perennial; leaves rigid, coriaceous, not deciduous; inflorescence usually few to many-flowered; lip not convolute around the column
 
......................................................................................... Coelogyne
62 (59). Flowers large, tepals about 4 cm long; sepals with saccate, concave base; lip funnel shaped, side lobes large, folded around the column
 
........................................................................................... Neogyna
- Flowers small or of medium size, tepals less than 2 cm long; sepals at the base more o less flat; lip side lobes small, not folded around the column
 
................................................................................................... 63
63. Column long, narrow, dilated at the apex; lip distinctly divided into a deeply concave hypochile with two high lateral lobes and a flat entire epichile, strongly reflexed down; epichile and hypochile separated with transversal bilobed band; floral bracts deciduous
 
.......................................................................................... Otochilus
- Column short, thick, not distinctly dilated toward the apex; lip not distinctly divided into hypochile and epichile; lip have no transversal bands; floral bracts deciduous or persistent
 
........................................................................................... Pholidota
64(42). Leaves distichous, laterally compressed, fleshy
 
.................................................................................................... 65
- Leaves dorsiventral, flat and thin
 
.................................................................................................... 66
65. Leafy stems close together
 
............................................................................................ Oberonia
- Leafy stems spaced on creeping rhizome
 
..................................................................................... Hippeophyllum
66. Column long, slender, commonly longer than broad; flowers resupinate, very rare not resupinate, lip turned down, very rare upwards, narrowing to the base, without auricles
 
.............................................................................................. Liparis
- Column short, thick, commonly as long as broad; flowers always not resupinate, lip turned upwards, with broad auriculate base
 
............................................................................................. Malaxis
67 (42). Pollinia 4
 
.................................................................................................... 68
- Pollinia 6 or 8
 
.................................................................................................... 76
68. Shoots clustering into dense tufts, stems slender, not pseudobulbous, commonly less than 10 cm tall, with many close distichous leaves usually less than 1 cm long; inflorescence terminal, less than 1 cm long, few-flowered with small campanulate flowers 2-3 mm across; pollinia clavate
 
......................................................................................... Podochilus
- Shoots commonly not clustering into dense tufts, stems commonly swollen (at least in some internodes), pseudobulbous, rareslender, reed-like, normally taller than 10 cm; or short pseudobulbous, consist of one swollen fleshy internode, distant on creeping woody rhizome; leaves rare less than 1 cm long; inflorescence lateral or sub-terminal commonly longer than 1cm, 1-tomany-flowered; flowers campanulate to well-opening, commonly larger than 3 mm across; pollinia not clavate
 
................................................................................................... 69
69. Pollinia without stipes
 
................................................................................................... 70
- Pollinia with stipes
 
................................................................................................... 74
70. The non rhizomatous part of sympodial shoots consisting of several to many internodes, usually fleshy, pseudobulbous (rare thin, reed-like), clustering on short rhizome
................................................................................................... 71
- The non rhizomatous part of sympodial shoots fleshy, pseudobulbous (sometimes small indistinct), consisting of 1-2 internodes, commonly distant on more or less long creeping rhizome
 
................................................................................................... 72
71. Basal part of non rhizomatous sympodial shoot thin, woody, rod-like, often branching with fleshy apical internodes forming 1-leaved pseudobulbs; leaves not sheathing at the base; Inflorescence 1(2)-flowered; flowers lasting few morning hours
 
........................................................................................ Flickingeria
- The non rhizomatous sympodial shoot not distinctly differentiated into thin and fleshy portions, or have fleshy base of few swollen internodes, rarely branching, normally with several to many leaves sheathing at the base; inflorescence usually with more than 2 flowers; flowers commonly lasting more than 1 day
 
....................................................................................... Dendrobium
72. Inflorescence appears terminal, from the apex of pseudobulb; lip not mobile, not hinged at base; menthum rather spur-like
 
....................................................................................... Epigeneium
- Inflorescence distinctly lateral, from the rhizomatous part; lip mobile, movably hinged to columnfoot; menthum rather saccate
 
................................................................................................... 73
73. Operculum with conspicuous horn at apex; sepals more or less equal size and form, spreading
 
................................................................................................ Trias
- Operculum without horn at apex; lateral sepals commonly different in size and shape from median sepal, spreading or not
 
..................................................................................... Bulbophyllum
74 (69). Stipe very large and massive, as broad as long, with broad apex which occupies whole clinandrium; inflorescence with 1 hardly opening flower
 
......................................................................................... Hamularia
- Stipe narrow and slender, much longer than broad, placed in furrow in front of column apex; inflorescence many-flowered, rare with 1-2 widely opening flowers
 
.................................................................................................... 75
75. Petals fascinated to the basal portion of distally naked columnfoot; columnfoot longer than column; lip with large falcate erect auricles at base; pollinia with 1 common stipe
 
........................................................................................ Monomeria
- Petals fascinated along the whole edge of the columnfoot; columnfoot of equal length or shorter than column; lip without conspicuous auricles at base; pollinia with 2 stipes
 
............................................................................................. Sunipia
76 (67). Pollinia 6; lip joined to columnfoot, with tall conspicuous appendage on upper surface toward the base; stem not pseudobulbous with numerous distichous leaves
 
....................................................................................... Appendicula
- Pollinia 8; lip not firmly joined to columnfoot, without tall appendage on upper surface; stem pseudobulbous or not
 
................................................................................................... 77
77. Lip with a sac-shaped hypochile separated from epichile by transversal ridge; stem not pseudobulbous, rod-like with numerous internodes and distichous grass-like leaves; flowers very small, less than 2 mm across, in dense terminal head
 
.................................................................................. Agrostophyllum
- Hypochile not separated from epichile by a transversal ridge; stem pseudobulbous or not; flowers commonly larger than 2 mm across, not in dense terminal heads
 
................................................................................................... 78
78. Pollinia joined by a common long thin caudicle
 
................................................................................................... 79
- Pollinia not joined by a common long thin caudicle
 
................................................................................................... 80
79. Plant with flat normally 2-leaved pseudobulbs, rare stem not pseudobulbous with few sub-radical distichous leaves; flowers hardly opening, sub-cleistogamous; lip at the base with a longitudinal thickening; operculum vertical behind column, beaked; column without columnfoot
 
............................................................................................ Thelasis
- Plant with several sub-radical distichous leaves; flowers campanulate; lip without thickening; operculum horizontal on top of column, not beaked; column with small, but distinct columnfoot
 
........................................................................................... Phreatia
80. Column with 2 vertical arms or lobules bearing stigmas; stem thin not pseudobulbous
 
...................................................................................... Ceratostylis
- Column without vertical arms or lobules bearing stigmas; stem pseudobulbous or not
 
.................................................................................................. 81
81. Sepals free; flowers widely opening or campanulate
 
................................................................................................... 82
- Sepals connate, forming tube; flowers hardly opening
 
................................................................................................... 84
82. Young leaves densely haired
 
....................................................................................... Trichotosia
- Leavesnothairy
 
................................................................................................... 83
83. Lip movably joined to a columnfoot; column long, forward curved; columnfoot distinctly broader than column, infront with large fleshy cushion
 
......................................................................................... Callostylis
- Lip not very movable, joined to a columnfoot; column short, not strongly curved; columnfoot not much broader than column, without conspicuous cushion
 
................................................................................................. Eria
84 (81). Pseudobulbs elongate, 4-10 cm tall, normally with 3-5 leaves; inflorescence 3-15 cm long, of many distichous flowers
 
...................................................................................... Cryptochilus
- Pseudobulbs flat, less than 1 cm tall, normally with 2 leaves; inflorescence less than 0.5 cm long, normally with 1-2 flowers
 
............................................................................................. Porpax
85 (7). Sympodial plants
 
................................................................................................... 86
- Monopodial plants
 
................................................................................................... 98
86. Lateral sepals free or partially merged into a synsepalum
 
................................................................................................... 87
- Lateral sepals merged completely into a synsepalum
 
........................................................................................... Acriopsis
87. Stem pseudobulbous; pseudobulbs 1-leaved, consist of 1 internode; column much curved, apically with 2 forwards curved horns
 
.................................................................................................... 88
- Stems usually of several internodes, pseudobulbous or not, with 1 to several leaves; column straight or slightly curved, apically without large, conspicuous horns
 
.................................................................................................... 89
88. Lip 2-lobed at apex with small insignificant median dent; column S-curved; on the upper side of columnfoot a narrow nectary opening at base of lip; pollinia 2; operculum semi globular
 
........................................................................................ Thecostele
- Lip at the apex acute, entire; column bent forwards, but not S-curved; columnfoot hollow with an entrance near the articulate base of lip; pollinia 4; operculum conical
 
.......................................................................................... Thecopus
89. Plants develop neither pseudobulbs nor tubers, stem thin, not pseudobulbous
 
................................................................................................... 90
- Plants develop tubers, corms or pseudobulbs of several internodes, or pseudobulbous stems often covered by close leaf sheaths
 
.................................................................................................. 92
90. Terrestrial grass-like plants with erect or climbing stem up to 1 m long; lip densely haired along midvein
 
.......................................................................................... Dipodium
- Epiphytes with stem less than 20 cm tall, not grass-like; lip not haired
 
................................................................................................... 91
91. Leaves linear, grass-like, laterally compressed or strongly conduplicate; inflorescence dense, not branching distichous spike; flowers resupinate, lasting few hours
 
...................................................................................... Bromheadia
- Leaves lanceolate to ovate, hardly conduplicate or flat; inflorescence lax, often branching all-facing raceme or panicle; flowers not resupinate, long lasting
 
...................................................................................... Polystachya
92 (89). Column at front edge with small horizontal triangular or obtuse wings; anther with 2 pollinia
 
................................................................................................... 93
- No wings at front of column; anther with 2 cleft or 4 pollinia
 
................................................................................................... 95
93. Columnfoot simple, without nectary; lip without claw
 
........................................................................................ Diglyphosa
- Columnfoot with a saccate nectary or a spur-like nectary formed with connate bases of lateral sepals; lip at base narrowing into a claw
 
................................................................................................... 94
94. Columnfoot short, fat, with a saccate nectary opening at base of column between vertical oblong cushions, lateral sepals not connate at base
 
.................................................................................. Chrysoglossum
- Columnfoot long forming a slender spur-like menthum together with connate bases of lateral sepals
 
.......................................................................................... Collabium
95 (92). Stem inflated of many internodes, more or less pseudobulbous, usually covered by dense leaf sheaths; anther with 2 cleft pollinia, or pollinia 4 in pairs; pollinarium without stipes, viscidium large, broad with truncate front edge
 
....................................................................................... Cymbidium
- Plants with tubers, corms or epigeous corm-like pseudobulbs of a few internodes; anther with 2 cleft pollinia or pollinia 4 in pairs; pollinarium with short strap-shaped stipes, viscidium rather large, sometimes forming a single structure with the stipe
 
.................................................................................................. 96
96. Raceme nodding down
 
........................................................................................ Geodorum
- Raceme normally straight and erect
 
.................................................................................................. 97
97. Flowers newer open widely; tepals narrowly lanceolate, free; column narrow, long and straight without columnfoot; anther with 4 pollinia
 
........................................................................................ Cremastra
- Flowers normally widely opening; sepals and petals broadly-lanceolate to broadly-ovate; lateral sepals often connate at the base forming small or large spur-like menthum; column with short, but distinct columnfoot; anther with 2 pollinia cleft at the base
 
............................................................................................ Eulophia
98 (85). Anther with 4 more or less equal globular pollinia free from each other
 
................................................................................................... 99
- Anther with 2, sometimes more or less divided pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 103
99. Very small, normally leafless epiphytes with flat ribbon-like green roots; stem usually 1-3 mm tall; flower slasting few hours
 
................................................................................... Taeniophyllum
- Plants with green leaves; stem much taller than 3 mm; flowers lasting few days
 
................................................................................................. 100
100. Small canopy epiphytes; numerous leaves less than 2 cm long; inflorescence very short, 2-4 mm long; flowers less than 5 mm across, subsessile
 
................................................................................................. 101
- Large terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic plants; leaves few, much longer than 2 cm; inflorescence 10-30 cm long; flowers more than 5 mm across
 
................................................................................................. 102
101. Leaves laterally compressed, equitant, closely placed along stem; stems 4-8(12) cm tall; inflorescence of 2 white flowers
 
...................................................................................... Microsaccus
- Leaves dorsiventral, sometimes fleshy, succulent, more or less distant; stems 10- 30 cm long; inflorescence of 1-4 green flowers
 
........................................................................................ Adenoncos
102. Terrestrial or lithophytic rosulate plants; stem 2-5 cm long; all leaves radical, close each other; inflorescence erect, stout; flowers 1.5-2.5 cm across
 
.............................................................................................. Doritis
- Epiphytic plants with long pendent stem to 1 m long; leaves distant on 3-6 cm; inflorescence erect to pendulous, slender; flowers 4-6.5 cm across
 
........................................................................................ Esmeralda
103 (98). Anther with 2 pollen-masses each completely divided in more or less unequal semiglobular free halves
 
................................................................................................. 104
- Pollen-masses more integrated
 
................................................................................................. 128
104. Column without columnfoot
 
................................................................................................. 105
- Column with columnfoot, sometimes small but always quite distinct
 
................................................................................................. 123
105. Lip firmly adnate to column, not movable
 
................................................................................................. 106
- Lipmovable
 
................................................................................................. 122
106. Hypochile sometimes somewhat concave, no spur or sac at base of lip
 
................................................................................................. 107
- Lip with distinct spur or sac at the base
 
................................................................................................. 108
107. Stem up to 1.5 m long with leaves 0.5-1 m long and 6-10 cm wide; flowers very fleshy, 4-6 cm across; lip much shorter than median sepal, obtuse
 
........................................................................................ Vandopsis
- Stem up to 12 cm long with leaves 4-10 cm long and 0.8-2 cm wide; flowers not particularly fleshy, 1 cm across; lip longer than median sepal, forked at the apex into 2 long teeth
 
........................................................................................ Diploprora
108. Spur without longitudinal septa inside
 
................................................................................................. 109
- Spur with a distinct longitudinal median septum inside
 
................................................................................................. 117
109. Spur inside without calli on back-wall
 
................................................................................................. 110
- Spur inside with different ornaments on back-wall
 
................................................................................................. 114
110. Stipes linear nearly 4 times as long as diameter of pollinia; epichile fringed to dentate
 
.................................................................................... Ornithochilus
- Stipes around twice as long as diameter of pollinia; epichile more or less entire along margin
 
................................................................................................. 111
111. Lip with transversal ridge or rugose callosities at the base of epichile
 
................................................................................................. 112
- Lip without transversal ridge or callosities on epichile
 
................................................................................................. 113
112. Large plants with stem up to 1 m tall and leaves 20-30 cm long; hypochile sac-like, hairy inside
 
........................................................................................... Acampe
- Small plants with stem up to 20 cm tall and leaves 5-10 cm long; hypochile spur-like, not hairy inside
 
...................................................................................... Smitinandia
113. Large plants with climbing stem normally longer than 50 cm; leaves coriaceous, flat, oblong; flowers red or yellow, 2-5 cm across; lip much shorter than median sepal
 
...................................................................................... Renanthera
- Small plant with pendant or creeping stem normally less than 20 cm long; leaves fleshy, lanceolate to sub-terete; flowers white to purple, less than 5 mm across; lip as long as or longer than median sepal
 
.................................................................................... Schoenorchis
114(109). Leaves terete; spurback-wall bears inside Y-shaped callus
 
................................................................................. Cleisostomopsis
- Leaves dorsiventral; spur back-wall inside bears a rising tongue
 
................................................................................................. 115
115. Rising tongue on the lip usually hairy, placed close to entrance to spur
 
................................................................................................. 116
- Back-wall rising tongue glabrous, placed deep in spur
 
..................................................................................... Pomatocalpa
116. Inflorescence very short, less than 1 cm long, commonly 1-2-flowered; flowers less than 1.5 cm across
 
..................................................................................... Trichoglottis
- Inflorescence normally 10-25 cm long; commonly bears more than 2 flowers; flowers more than 1.5 cm across
 
...................................................................................... Staurochilus
117 (108). Vine-like plant with climbing or hanging stem and numerous ovate leaves usually less than 3 cm long; column with 2 long thin glabrous stelidia incurved above apex; inflorescence very short, less than 1 cm long, 1-2(3)-flowered
 
.................................................................................... Pelatantheria
- Stem erect, rare vine-like and ascending, leaves usually longer than 3 cm; column without large stelidia; inflorescence longer than 1 cm with few to many flowers
 
................................................................................................. 118
118. Floral bracts large, longer than flowers; bracts, ovary and flowers densely pubescent
 
...................................................................................... Cleisomeria
- Floral bracts small insignificant, shorter than flowers; bracts, ovary and flowers glabrous, rarely papillose
 
................................................................................................. 119
119. Rostellum projection narrow, very long, twice longer than broad of operculum, supports a thin linear stipe, to 9 times as long as diameter of pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 120
- Rostellum projection shorter; stipe usually shorter than 9 diameters of pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 121
120. Vine-like plant with climbing or hanging stem commonly 15-30 cm long, rooting along all its length; leaves distant, coriaceous; rostellum projection distally upwards turned, stipe linear on all its length
 
........................................................................................ Micropera
- Plants with short erect stem, usually up to 10 cm tall, rooting at the base, leaves fleshy, distinctly distichous, arranged into 2 dense rows; rostellum projection distally curved down, stipe linear broadening to the apex
 
...................................................................................... Stereochilus
121. Clinandrium top with a rising dorsal longitudinal ridge with a furrow along edge bearing long linear stipe and dorsally placed pollinia
 
...................................................................................... Sarcoglyphis
- Column without conspicuous dorsal ridge at the top; pollinia not placed dorsally; stipe very variable in form
 
...................................................................................... Cleisostoma
122 (105). Sepals and petals broadlyovate; stem erect, straight, semi-woody; leavesusually3- 5 cm broad; lip broadly spatulate at the apex; epichile with high median keel
 
....................................................................................... Hygrochilus
- Sepals and petals narrowly-oblong, spatulate toward the apex; stem slender, often climbing, vine-like; leaves less than 3 cm broad; lip acute at the apex; epichile with low median keel
 
.......................................................................................... Arachnis
123 (104). Lip without distinct spur or sac, but hypochile often more or less concave; leaves dorsiventral, usually thin, or lacking
 
................................................................................................ 124
- Lip with distinct spur or sac; leaves dorsiventral, usually fleshy or terete
 
................................................................................................ 125
124. Stipe short and broad, shorter than diameter of pollinia; plants with normal leaves; stem usually longer than 1 cm, rooting along all its length
 
................................................................................... Thrixspermum
- Stipe linear to strap-shaped, about twice as long as diameter of pollinia; leaves usually lacking; stem usually less than 1 cm long with densely clustering numerous roots
 
...................................................................................... Chiloschista
125. Spur of lip with longitudinal septum
 
...................................................................................... Cleisostoma
- Spur of lip without longitudinal septum
 
................................................................................................. 126
126. Leaves terete, usually purple
 
.................................................................................... Rhynchogyna
- Leaves dorsiventral, usually green, sometimes with purple tint
 
................................................................................................. 127
127. Stem short, normally less than 2 cm long; leaves thin, ovate, 3-6 cm wide; flowers more than 1 cm across, in lax few flowered inflorescence normally longer than 5 cm
 
.......................................................................................... Kingidium
- Stem 4-20 cm long; leaves lanceolate-oblong, fleshy, less than 1 cm wide; flowers less than 1 cm across in dense inflorescence 3-5 cm long
 
.................................................................................... Cleisocentron
128(103). Anther with 2 pollinia, more or less but not completely cleft or split
 
................................................................................................. 129
- Pollen-masses more integrated
 
................................................................................................. 139
129. Flowers without columnfoot, or columnfoot very indistinct
 
................................................................................................. 130
- Flowers with distinct, but sometimes short columnfoot
 
................................................................................................. 135
130. Inflorescence lax raceme, commonly with 2-5 flowers, flowers commonly more than 1.5 cm across
 
................................................................................................. 131
- Inflorescence dense spike with numerous flowers; flowers commonly less than 1.5 cm across
 
................................................................................................. 132
131. Epichile 2-lobed, truncate or obtuse, more or less flesh or rigid, with entire margin; stipe short and broad
 
............................................................................................. Vanda
- Epichile entire, broad, semicircular, thin, denticulate along margin; stipe narrowly-lanceolate
 
.................................................................................... Christensonia
132. Flowers 1-1.5 cm across; robust plants with erect semi-woody stem; leaves large, very rigid, normally 20-40 cm long often with many light-colored veins
 
................................................................................... Rhynchostylis
- Flowers much less than 1 cm across; plants smaller with erect or pendent stem; leaves not particularly rigid, normally less than 15 cm long, uniformly green
 
................................................................................................. 133
133. Tiny canopy epiphytes; leaves normally 2-5 cm long; flowers 2-3 mm across
 
................................................................................... Saccolabiopsis
- Medium size epiphytes; leaves normally longer than 5 cm; flowers more than 4 mm across
 
.................................................................................................. 134
134. Long stemmed plants with distant leaves; stipe lanceolate to spathulate, slightly dilated and curved at apex; spur distinctly inflated at the apex
 
........................................................................................ Robiquetia
- Rather short stemmed plants with few, more or less close leaves; stipe S-shaped, rising above and behind pollinia, which are separated by a vertical longitudinal stipe lamella; spur not in flated at the apex
 
........................................................................................... Uncifera
135(129). Leaves terete; stemvine-like, slender, climbing
 
..................................................................................... Papilionanthe
- Leaves dorsiventral; stem not vine-like, more or less erect
 
................................................................................................. 136
136. Mid-lobe of epichile well developed, large, flat, cordate, triangular or oblong; hypochile flat, concave or form conspicuous forward curved spur
 
................................................................................................. 137
- Mid-lobe of epichile reduced in form of small fleshy dent, spur or sac placed centrally on the lip
 
................................................................................................. 138
137. Hypochile flat or slightly concave; epichile at the base with high keels, teeth or thread-like bifurcate appendages; inflorescence with few distichous flowers
 
..................................................................................... Phalaenopsis
- Hypochile form conspicuous forward curved spur; epichile flat without ornaments; inflorescence with numerous all-faced flowers
 
............................................................................................ Aerides
138. Columnfoot as long as or longer than column; rachis of inflorescence not swollen along whole its length; stem longer than 2 cm, bearing normally several leaves
 
....................................................................................... Pteroceras
- Column much shorter than column; rachis of inflorescence distinctly swollen toward the apex; stem very short, less than 2 cm long, bearing normally 1-3 leaves
 
...................................................................................... Brachypeza
139(128). Anther with 2 porate pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 140
- Anther with 2 whole pollinia, not cleft, split or porate
 
................................................................................................. 147
140. Lip movable; columnfoot as long as or longer than column; lateral sepals attached with their bases to the basal portion of distally naked columnfoot; spur entrance partially closed by a horizontal plate arising from the back-wall of the lip
 
...................................................................................... Cryptopylos
- Lip not movable; columnfoot shorter, rarely as long as or longer than column; lateral sepals attached to columnfoot along whole its length; spur entrance free
 
................................................................................................. 141
141. Leaves terete, very rigid; inflorescence very short, commonly less than 1 cm long
 
............................................................................................... Luisia
- Leaves dorsiventral, sometimes fleshy conduplicate to sub-terete, but not particularly rigid; inflorescence commonly longer than 1 cm
 
................................................................................................. 142
142. Small canopy epiphytes with leaves normally less than 6 cm; mid-lobe of the lip large, terete, conical at the apex, fleshy, furrowed and concave toward the base; flowers distichous, opening in succession and lasting few hours
 
....................................................................................... Biermannia
- Medium size epiphytes with leaves commonly longer than 6 cm; mid-lobe of the lip more or less flat, not terete or fleshy; flowers all-way faced, lasting few days
 
................................................................................................. 143
143. No distinct rising side-lobes on the sac-like hypochile, usually just a fleshy rim joining in front of sac entrance
 
................................................................................................. 144
- Distinct, but sometimes small, side-lobes rising from lateral sides of hypochile which forms a saccate to cylindrical spur
 
................................................................................................. 145
144. Inflorescence umbel-like, less than 3 cm long; epichile broadly fastened in front of the rim connecting edges of the hypochile, usually crescent-shaped, commonly shorter than broad; the edges of the stigma not swelling
 
...................................................................................... Gastrochilus
- Inflorescence dense raceme much longer than 3 cm; epichile narrow, triangular, concave to the base connecting by lateral sides the edges of the hypochile; the edges of the stigma concavity much swelling into protruding ring-like structure
 
................................................................................ Eparmatostigma
145. Epichile thin, much broadening from a narrow base; leaves strongly conduplicate, semi-terete; inflorescence lax few-flowered raceme, normally longer than 15 cm
 
.................................................................................... Holcoglossum
- Epichile more or less fleshy, ligulate-oblong or broadly cuneate, not narrowing toward the base; leaves distinctly dorsiventral, very rare sub-terete; inflorescence dense, many-flowered spike, normally shorter than 15 cm
 
................................................................................................. 146
146. Epichile ligulate-oblong, more or less flat; lip side-lobes rather straight, no transversal callus at the base of epichile; stipe broad and rather short, twice longer than diameter ofpollinia
 
.................................................................................... Ascocentrum
- Epichile broadly-cuneate, concave; lip side-lobes strongly incurved, closing the entrance of the spur, at the base of epichile large fleshy transverse callus connecting the front-edges of side-lobes, curving inwards; stipe narrow, longer than twice diameter of pollinia
 
.................................................................................. Ascocentropsis
147 (139). Column without distinct columnfoot; stipe linear, much broadening at apex, 3-5 times as long as diameter of pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 148
- Column with distinct columnfoot; stipe ovate to broadly-lanceolate, not much broadening at apex, as long as or few longer as diameter of pollinia
 
................................................................................................. 149
148. Lip side-lobes very large, flat, ciliate or finely fringed along front margin
 
...................................................................................... Pennilabium
- Lip side-lobes small in form of insignificant dents, entire along margin
 
........................................................................................... Malleola
149. Lip movable, 5-lobed; side-lobes and lateral lobes of epichile long, conspicuous, erect, longer than broad, mid-lobe very small inform of short fleshy dent
 
..................................................................................... Grossourdya
- Lip not movable; epichile short, obtuse, entire, very fleshy, lateral lobes insignificant or broadly oblong to semi-circular as long as broad
 
................................................................................................. 150
150. Stem usually 4-8 cm long, erect to suberect, with more or less distant leaves; inflorescence lax, 5-8 cm long; lip with broadly-oblong or semi-circular side-lobes; mid-lobe fleshy, broadly conical
 
................................................................................. Parapteroceras
- Stem usually less than 4 cm long, pendulous, with close placed leaves; inflorescence short, head-like, commonly less than 3 cm long with densely placed flowers opening in succession; lip very fleshy, with broadly obtuse indistinct lobes
 
.................................................................................... Tuberolabium
151(1). Climbing vines commonly 2-10 m long
 
................................................................................................. 152
- Terrestrial erect herbs commonly less than 2m tall
 
................................................................................................. 153
152. Inflorescence rachis and sepals outside densely pubescent; flowers brightly yellow, 2-3 cm across, column stout
 
........................................................................................... Galeola<
- Inflorescence rachis and sepals outside glabrous; flowers light olive green to dull pink-whitish, less than 2 cm across, column slender
 
..................................................................................... Erythrorchis
153. Lateral sepals joined each together for a large part of their length
 
................................................................................................. 154
- Lateral sepals free from one another or only joined at the base
 
................................................................................................. 157
154. Sepals and petals joined into 5-lobed tube, split between lateral sepals; flowers hardly opening; sepals fleshy, light brownish to brownish-pink; stigma at the base of column; pollinia 2
 
......................................................................................... Gastrodia
- Sepals and petals free or joined less than half of their length, newer form tube; flowers widely opening; sepals and petals very thin, white or blue-violet; stigma near top of column; pollinia 2 or 4
 
................................................................................................. 155
155. Column without stelidia; flowers white
 
..................................................................................... Didymoplexis
- Column near apex with conspicuous long decurved hook-like stelidia; flowers white orblue-violet
 
................................................................................................. 156
156. Median sepal and petals joined to about half of their length, fused with joined lateral sepals near their base; columnfoot absent; flowers blue-violet
 
.................................................................................. Didymoplexiella
- Median sepal and petals free; columnfoot present; flowers white
 
............................................................................... Didymoplexiopsis
157 (153). Lip entire, not lobed
 
................................................................................................. 158
- Lip distinctly divided into 2-3 lobes
 
................................................................................................. 160
158. Sepals pubescent or mealy outside; sepals and petals yellow to yellow-brown, lip pale yellow; plants more or less robust, stem reddish-brown to pinkish-brown, rigid; fruits juicy, cylindrical, berry-like, dull red-purple; tubers numerous, cylindrical, finger-like
 
........................................................................................... Cyrtosia
- Sepals glabrous; sepals and petals white, sometimes with black-violet tips, lip white with purple tint or purple nerves, sometime with black-violet tip; plants slender, stem white, soft and weak; fruits dry yellowish-white broadly ovate capsule; tuber one, ovate to cylindrical-ovate
 
................................................................................................ 159
159. Sepals and petals white, rare with light pink nerves; lip ovate, white or with light pink center or with light purple spots, at the base with short broad spur
 
........................................................................................ Epipogium
- Sepals, petals and lip white, with black-violet tips; lip narrowly ovate to broadly-lanceolate, not spurred
 
.................................................................................... Stereosandra
160 (157). Flowers with a distinct calyculus beneath perianth; lip apex densely long haired; stemvery brittle, dark brown to black, less than 1 mm thick
 
...................................................................................... Lecanorchis
- Calyculus beneath perianth absent; lip at the apex glabrous or papillose; stem not particularly brittle, white, yellowish, olive to yellowish-brown, more than 1 mm thick
 
................................................................................................. 161
161. Inflorescence yellowish-brown to olive-brown, normally with more than 5 flowers; lip distinctly divided into hypochile, mesochile and epichile
 
................................................................................................. 162
- Inflorescence white, normally with 1-3 (5) or more flowers; lip not divided into hypochile, mesochile and epichile
 
................................................................................................. 163
162. Plants more than 25 cm tall; apex of the lip acute to broadly acute
 
...................................................................................... Aphyllorchis
- Plants less than 25 cm tall; apex of the lip distinctly bilobed
 
..................................................................................... Odontochilus
163. Flowers brightly yellow, widely opening; sepals and petals more or less thin, lip side-lobes flat, reflexed, mid-lobe at the apex broadly truncate; column without stelidia
 
......................................................................................... Vietorchis
- Flowers white with purple tint, hardly opening to campanulate; sepals and petals fleshy, lip side-lobes upward incurved, mid-lobe broadly acute; column at the apex with large lateral stelidia
 
.............................................................................................. Yoania

SUBFAMILY APOSTASIOIDEAE REICHENB.

1841, Repert. Herb.: 56 (sub "Apostasieae"). - Fam. Apostasiaceae Lindl., 1833, Nixus Pl.: 22 (sub "Apostasieae").

Type: Apostasia Blume
2(2) genera and 15(5) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia to N Australia and New Guinea.

Neuwiedia Blume, 1834, in Hoeven et De Vriese, Tijdschr. Nat. Geschied. 1: 140; id., 1834, Ann. Sci. Nat. (Paris) 2, 2: 93; De Vogel, 1969, Blumea 17, 2: 313-350; Chen et Lang, 1986, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24, 5: 346-348.

Type: N. veratrifolia Blume

Sympodial terrestrial herbs with erect semi-woody unbranched stem, often with few aerial roots at the base. Leaves numerous, spirally arranged, plicate, the upper becoming bract-like. Inflorescence sub-terminal, erect, many-flowered, dense raceme. Flowers pedicellate, resupinate, not opening widely, campanulate, hardly zygomorphic. Tepals free, sub-similar, lanceolate to narrowly obovate, petals are thinner in texture, the lip a little broader. Column straight, with 3 fertile stamens, filaments basally jointed to the style, anthers free. Fruit dry capsule or juicy berry. Seeds with hard alveolate testa.

6-8(1) species. Mainland Southeast Asia to SW Pacific islands.

1. N. zollingeri Reichenb. f., 1857, Bonplandia 5: 58.

Described from Java ("s.l."). Type ("Zollinger 2808") - W.

Distribution. Mainland Southeast Asia, Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan.

 
Key to varieties

1. Inflorescence glabrous or with very few scattered hairs
 
.......................................................... 1. N. zollingeri var. annamensis
- Inflorescence densely hairy
 
..................................................................................................... 2.
2. Flowers brightly yellow; ripe fruit white
 
................................................................ 2. N. zollingeri var. javanica
- Flowers pure white with yellow central spot on lip; ripe frui torange to red
 
............................................................... 3. N. zollingeri var. balansae

1a. N. zollingeri var. annamensis (Gagnep.) Aver., comb. nov. - N. annamensis Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 350; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 11; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Viet. Orch.: 11; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 46.

Described from S Vietnam ("Annam: Nui-han-heo, pres Nhatrang..."). Type ("Poilane 4937") - P.

Plant up to 40 cm tall, glabrous or with few scattered hairs. Leaves numerous, thin, close together below inflorescence, petiolate; leaf blade narrowly elliptic to elliptic, acute, 18-50 by 4-6 cm. Inflorescence 6-15 cm long, bearing 30-60 flowers. Floral bracts triangular, acuminate, 1-2 by 0.3-0.5 cm, as long as flowers. Flowers yellow. Tepals lanceolate to narrowly obovate, 15-23 by 4-8 mm, obtuse, ending below apex in short mucro; petals and lip slightly shorter and wider, dorsally with low keel. Stamens 1.2-1.8 cm long, longer than style; anthers 6-8 mm long. Style straight, 1-1.6 cm long with roundish stigma. Fruit white juicy berry, 5-8 mm across.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen lowland and submontane forests on granite and gneiss. 900 m. Fl. May. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Khanh Hoa).

Studied specimens. Nui Han Heo, Nhatrang, Poilane, 4937 (P), Poilane, 6180 (P).

Notes. Closely allied to type variety, from which distinctly differs in large flowers.

1b. N. zollingeri var. javanica (J.J. Smith) de Vogel, 1969, Blumea, 17, 2: 329. - N. javanica J.J. Smith. 1914, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg 2, 14: 5.

Described from Java ("… Artana…"). Lectotype ("J.J. Smith s.n. a. 1900") - BO.

Plants up to 40 cm tall, allparts moreor less densely haired. Flowers bright yellow. Dorsal keel on petals and lip densely hairy. Ripe fruit white juicy berry. Fig. 14, a-d.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen submontane forests on granite and sandstone. 600-950 m. Fl. March. Rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lak, Ninh Thuan). Java, Sumatra, Bali.

Studied specimens. Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua mt HLF 4415 (HN, LE); Dak Lak, Chu Yang Sin mt, HLF 5479 (HN, LE).

Notes. Ripe berries of this variety spicy-fragrant, sweet and edible.

1c. N. zollingeri var. balansae (Gagnep.) Aver., comb. nov. - N. balansae Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 350. - N. griffithii auct. non Reichenb. f.: Seidenf. 1992, l.c.: 11; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Viet. Orch.: 12; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 46. - N. inae auct. non de Vogel: Seidenf. 1992, l.c.: 13; Aver. 1994, l.c.: 12; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, l.c.: 46.

Described from N Vietnam ("Tonkin: mt. Bavi, …"). Lectotype ("n° 2000 (Balansa)") - P.

Plants up to 40 cm tall, all parts more or less densely. Flowers pure white, lip with yellow spot in center. Dorsal keel on petals and lip densely hairy. Ripe fruit orange to red juicy berry. Fig. 13, a; 14, e-g.
 
Ecology. Shady broad-leaved, evergreen lowland and submontane forests of sandstone, granite and rocky limestone. 450-1250 m. Fl. May - June. Rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum; Ninh Binh, Phu Tho, Quang Ninh).

Studied specimens. Cam Pha, Cong Hoa, Quang Ninh, Tran s.n. (LE, UHN); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, Duc B 356 (HN), CPNP 5116 (HN), N.M. Cuong, H.L. Quyen, NMC 309 (HN), DDS11060 (HN), Averyanov et al., HAL 1686 (HN,LE), Duc B 356 (HN), N.T. Hiep, NTH 3056 (HN); Dak Nong Prov., Ta Dung mt, HLF5567 (HN, LE); Mt. Bavi, Ha Son Binh 800 m, Balansa, 2000; Song Cao near Nhatrang 800 m, Evrard, 508 (AMES) & Poilane, 3408 (P); Dakto,Gialai-Kontum, Dao,230 (HN).

Notes. Closely allied to N. zollingeri var. singapureana (Backer) de Vogel, from which differs in large pure white flowers. Specimens from Cuc Phuong national park occasionally have flowers with 4 fertile stamens.

Apostasia Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 39; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 423; De Vogel, 1969, Blumea, 17, 2: 313-350; Chen et Lang, 1986, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 24, 5: 348-351.

Type: A. odorata Blume

Sympodial terrestrial herbs with erect semi-woody commonly unbranched stem, with few aerial roots at the base. Leaves few to numerous, spirally arranged, plicate, with acute to filiform tip. Inflorescence sub-terminal, erect to arching and pendent, usually branched, many-flowered. Flowers, sessile, not resupinate, opening widely, hardly zygomorphic. Tepals free, sub-similar, broadly lanceolate, more or less recurved, with dorsal keel extending apically into acute beak, the lip a little larger and wider. Column straight or curved, usually with 2 fertile stamens, often with 1 staminode, filaments short, basally jointed to the style; anthers free; stigma 3-lobed or suborbicular. Fruit dry cylindrical capsule. Seeds with black hard alveolate testa.

7(4) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia to N Australia and New Guinea.

 
Key to species

1. Plants 5-12 cm tall; leaves petiolate, leaf blade ovate to elliptic, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 0.5- 1 cm wide
 
................................................................................ 3. A. nipponica
- Plants 20-100 cm tall; leaves sessile, linear to lanceolate, 7-35 cm long, 0.3-2.2 cm wide 2
2. Inflorescence at the base with bunch of numerous sterile bracts; flowers white or yellow; tepals strongly reflexed right back; staminode absent
 
....................................................................................... 4. A. nuda
- Inflorescence without bunch of sterile bracts at the base; flowers yellow; tepals reflexed back or straight; staminode present, joined most of the way to style
 
.................................................................................................... 3
3. Tepals less than 6 mm long; capsule less than 1.8 cm long; column terete, without wings below staminode; leaves linear to narrowly lanceolate, commonly to 1.5 cm wide
 
................................................................................... 1. A. wallichii
- Tepals more than 6 mm long; capsule longer than 1.8 cm; column more or less flattened, with 2 wings below staminode; leaves narrowly lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, comm only 1.5-2 cm wide
 
................................................................................... 2. A. odorata

1. A. wallichii R. Br. 1830, in Wall. Pl. As. Rar. 1: 75; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 13; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Viet. Orch.: 13; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Nepal ("in valle Nagaliae minora, Noakote dicta"). Lectotype ("Wallich, 4448") - K (holo), E (iso).

Plant 15-100 cm tall. Leaves numerous, close, linear to narrowly lanceolate, 12-35 by 3-15 mm. Inflorescence, simple to many branched, many flowered. Flowers pale yellow. Tepals 4-5 by 0.6-1.2 mm. Column straight to strongly curved at base, cylindrical, without wings. Stamens 2.3-4 mm long. Staminode entirely adnate to column or with free obtuse tip. Ovary 1-1.7 cm long, 0.8-1 mm in diam. Capsule 1-1.8 cm long, 1.4-2 mm wide. Fig. 15, a, b.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and coniferous lowland and sub-montane forests on shale, sandstone, granite, gneiss and basalt. 200-1200 m. Fl. March, April. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dong Nai, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Phu Tho, Quang Binh, Quang Nam, Tay Ninh, Thua Thien - Hue). Tropical Asia from Sri Lanka and Nepal to Philippines, N Australia and New Guinea.

Studied specimens. Prenh, Dalat, Evrard, 1469, 2314 (P); Lo Go, Tay Ninh, Mueller, 1470 (P); Gian Lau me, Dong Nai, Bienhoa, Pierre, 6583 (P); Mt Tamire, Pierre, 6583 (P); Nhatrang, Poilane, 3808 (P); Ba Na, Danang, Poilane, 7277 (P); Go O to Mo O, Quang Nam 1000 m, Poilane, 31671 (P); Gialai - Kontum, Kbang - Kon Ha Nung, LX-VN 2739 (LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH 4322 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, DKH4690 (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH5185 (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5327 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4321 (HN, LE), HLF4362 (HN,LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt., HLF4362 (HN,LE); ThuaThien - Hue, ALuoi, HAL7968 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11708 (HN).

2. A. odorata Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 39; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 423; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 13; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Viet. Orch.: 13; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - A. thorelii Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 70: 350.

Described from Java ("montis Salak"). Lectotype ("Blume s.n.") - L.

Plant 30-80 cm tall. Leaves numerous, close, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, 15-25 by 1.5-2.2 cm. Inflorescence simple to few branched, many flowered. Flowers bright yellow. Tepals 9-12 by 1.5-2 mm. Column straight to strongly curved at base, usually laterally flattened, with 2 short longitudinal low to tall quadrangular wings below staminode. Stamens 2, 5-6 mm long. Staminode adnate to column with free obtuse tip. Ovary 10-18 mm long, 1-1.2 mm wide. Capsule 1.8-2.5 cm long, 1.5-2.5 mm wide. Fig. 13, b-d; 15, c-e.

 
Fig. 13. Neuwiedia zollingeri var. balansae
 
Fig. 13. Neuwiedia zollingeri var. balansae: a - flower. Apostasia odorata: b - flowering plant, c - flower, d - column; A. nipponica: e - flowering and fruiting plant, f - flower. A. nuda: g - flowering plant.
Fig. 14. Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica
 
Fig. 14. Neuwiedia zollingeri var. javanica: a, b (HLF 4415), c, d (HLF 5479). N. zollingeri var. balansae: e, f (HAL 1686), g (HLF 5567).
Fig. 15. Apostasia wallichii
 
Fig. 15. Apostasia wallichii: a, b (VH5185). A. odorata: c-e (HAL5337). A.nipponica:f (HLF 1406), g, h (HAL 7175).

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and coniferous lowland, submontane and montane forests on shale, sandstone, granite, gneiss, rhyolite and quartzite. 300- 1600 m. Fl. March - June. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lak, Dong Nai, Ha Tinh, Khanh Hoa, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Phu Tho, Quang Binh, Vinh Phuc). Mainland tropical Asia, Hainan, Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan.

Studied specimens. Bao Loc 1000-1200, Poilane, 22045 (P); Bavi, 1200 m, Chevalier, 37777 (P); Dak Lak, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF 5481 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 1281 (HN,LE), HAL 5337 (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH4174 (HN, LE), VH 4378 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, DKH 6626 (HN,LE), DKH 6905 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2354 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao 3, LX-VN 2368 (LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh distr., HAL 11519 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11624 (HN).

Notes. The name A. thorelii is attributed to plants with tall quadrangular column wings and rather broad leaves. Taxonomical status of such marginal plants is stilluncertain.

3. A. nipponica Masam. 1935, Journ. Jap. Bot. 11: 46.

Described from Ryukyu Islands ("Yakusima, Kurio, …"). Type ("Jul. 13. 1933 (leg. S. Suzuki)") - ?

Plant 5-10(12) cm tall. Leaves few, distant, distinctly petiolate, petiole 0.5-1 cm long, leaf blade ovate to elliptic, 1.5-2.5 by 0.5-1 cm. Inflorescence simple or with 1-3 branches bearing 1-4 flowers. Flowers bright yellow. Tepals 3.5-5.5 by 1-1.4 mm. Column straight to slightly curved at base, without wings or with 2 short longitudinal insignificant wings below staminode. Stamens 2.2-3 mm long. Staminode adnate to column with free orbicular tip. Ovary 6-9 mm long, 0.5-1.2 mm wide. Capsule 0.8- 1.1 cm long, 1.4-1.8 mm wide. Fig. 13, e, f; 15, f-h. Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen lowland and submontane forests on shale, sandstone and granite. 300-1000 m. Fl. April, May. Very rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Thua Thien - Hue). Ryukyu Islands.

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son, Rao An, No HAL 5157 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7175 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Bach Ma, HLF 1406 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 10928 (HN, LE).

4. A. nuda R. Br. 1830, in Wall. Pl. As. Rar. 1: 76, tab. 85; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 15; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Viet. Orch.: 13; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Malacca Peninsular ("in montibus insulae Penang"). Lectotype ("Porter s.n. Wallich 4449") - K.

Plant 12-40 cm tall. Leaves numerous, close, linear to linear lanceolate, 7-20 by 3-8 mm. Inflorescence simple to few branched, many flowered with tuft of small narrow sterile bracts at base. Flowers white to yellow. Tepals 3.5-4.5 by 0.6-0.8 mm. Column strongly curved. Stamens 2, 3.2-3.5 mm long. Staminode absent. Ovary 8- 10 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide. Capsule 1.2-1.4 cm long, 1 mm wide. Fig. 13, g.

Ecology. Shady coniferous and broad-leaved evergreen lowland and mountain forests on shale, 320-1400 m. Fl. January, February. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lak, Thua Thien - Hue). Myanmar, Thailand, Malacca Peninsular, Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan.

Studied specimens. Dak Lak, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF5438 (HN, LE); Thua Thien- Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6983 (HN, LE).

Notes. Flowers of this species varies from yellow to white. Flower color of Vietnamese samples is unknown.

SUBFAMILY CYPRIPEDIOIDEAE LINDL.

1821, Collect. Bot. Cypripedieae (sub "Cypripedieae"). - Fam. Cypripediaceae Lindl., 1833, Nixus Pl.: 22 (sub "Cypripedieae").

Type: Cypripedium L.
5(1) genera and about 125(18) species. Subtropical and tropical areas of the world (except Africa).

Paphiopedilum Pfitz.1886, Morph. Stud. Orch.: 11; Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 448-492; Seidenf. 1972, Bot. Tidsskr. 67, 1-2: 76-95; Chen et Liu, 1982, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 4, 2: 163-167; Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 1-249, Cribb, 1998, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 1-427; Averyanov et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 1-288, nom. cons.

Type: P. insigne (Wall. ex Lindl.) Pfitz. (Cypripedium insigne Wall. ex Lindl.)

Sympodial terrestrial, lithophytic or epiphytic herbs with thick hairy roots at the base of very short stem. Leaves few, rosulate, distichous, conduplicate, often tessellated with deep and light green mottles. Inflorescence sub-terminal, one-to few-flowered raceme on long stalk. Flowers large, resupinate, variously colored, pubescent outside. Lateral sepals connate into synsepalum. Lip inflated, sac-like, slipper-shaped. Column short, curved downwards into lip opening, dorsally with large shield-like staminode, 2 lateral fertile stamens and hemispheric stigma ending short style. Pollen not aggregated into pollinia, gel-like, sticky.

About 75(18) species. Tropical Asia to Philippines and islands of west Pacific.

 
Key to species

1. Lip inflated, sub-spherical to ovoid, calceolate with involuted upper apical margin; dorsal sepal and synsepal more or less similar to petals in color and shape, white, yellowish, dull yellow-greenish or pink, more or less of one color; petals broadly-ovate to circular, less than twice as long as broad, very rarely petals narrowly-ovate (in this case petals and lip hooked at apex)
 
...................................................................................................... 2
- Lip goblet-like, cylindrical, with incurved side-lobes and apical margin of the pouch straight, not involuted; dorsal sepal and synsepal distinctly differ from petals in color and shape, petals much narrower than dorsal sepal, dorsal sepal and petals commonly variously colored, often contrastly striped and spotted; petals tapering, narrowly-oblong or spathulate, more than twice as long as broad, newer hooked at the apex
 
...................................................................................................... 8
2. Dorsal sepal and synsepal distinctly smaller than lateral petals; lip inflated, more or less spherical, thin-textured, lightly grooved along the veins; staminode large, broad at apex, flat or longitudinally conduplicate, sometimes with involute side margins; flowers white, pale yellowish-green or pink, sometimes with brown or purple stripes along nerves; leaves tessellated or uniformly green; plant of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates
 
.................................................................................................... 3
- Dorsal sepal and synsepal more or less similar with petals size; lip is ovoid, rather thick in texture, plain on surface; staminode middle sized, distinctly 3-or 5-dentate at the apex, with a large narrow central tooth; flowers pale yellowish-white to yellow, sepals and petals usually with small purple spots; leaves markedly tessellated; plant of calcareous substrates
 
................................................................................... 7. P. concolor
3. Leaves distinctly tessellated above and heavily spotted or uniformly tinged with dirty-purple-violet beneath, 10-15(20) cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide; flowers pink, pink-purple or pale green; lip longer or hardly shorter than lateral petals; underground stolons may be present or not; plants of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates
 
...................................................................................................... 4
- Leaves uniformly green on both sides, rare with few small purple-violet marks beneath near the base, (15)20-35 cm long, 4-6 cm wide; flowers white or pale yellowish-green; lip distinctly smaller than lateral petals; plants of calcareous substrates, never developing stolons
 
..................................................................................................... 7
4. Staminode flat, with a broad apex; sepals and petals uniformly light pink to pink-purple; plants of calcareous or acidic silicate substrates, without stolons
 
..................................................................................................... 5
- Staminode longitudinally conduplicate or with deep fold along midvein at the apex; sepals apple-green or yellowish-pink with purple stripes along veins; plants of calcareous substrates, with more or less elongate underground stolons
 
..................................................................................................... 6
5. Flowers 7.5-10 cm across; sepals less than 4.5 cm long, subcircular to broadly-ovate, spreading; staminode with bright yellow center and central purple mark; leaves narrowly-oblong to oblong, 8-11 cm long, 3-3.5(4) cm wide, tessellated more or less contrastingly deep-green/whitish-green; plant of acidic silicate substrates
 
................................................................................... 1. P. delenatii
- Flowers 10-12 cm across; sepals longer than 4.5 cm, broadly-oblong to broadly-ovate, down directed; staminode with dull yellow or light olive-green center; leaves ovate to oblong-elliptic, (8)11-20 cm long, (2.5)4-7 cm wide, tessellated glossy deep-green/silver-gray; plant of calcareous substrates
 
.............................................................................. 2. P.vietnamense
6. Flowers (8)9-12.2 cm across, pale yellowish-green to apple-green, dorsal sepal and petals with brown-purple stripes; dorsal sepal cuspidate-acuminate at apex, more than 4 cm long; petals ovate to narrowly-ovate, subacute at apex, longer than 4 cm; staminode more than 12.5 mm long, broadly ovate, convex at the base, apically with a deep fold along the midvein and involute side margins
 
............................................................................... 3. P. malipoense
- Flowers 6-8(8.7) cm across, pink to pink-purple dorsal sepal and petals with purple striped along veins; dorsal sepal obtuse or shortly acute at apex, less than 4 cm long; petals broadly obovate to subcircular, rounded at apex, less than 4 cm long; staminode lessthan 12.5 mm long, elliptic, longitudinally conduplicate
 
.............................................................................. 4. P. micranthum
7(3). Flowers commonly subcampanulate, sepals and petals light yellowish-green with purple-brown flushing at the base; lip yellowish-white; staminode broadly triangular, more than 17 mm wide, convex, broadly-rounded at apex, white or yellowish-white with purple anastomosing markings
 
................................................................................ 5. P. hangianum
- Flower commonly spreading, sepals and petals white, sometimes faintly flushed with purple at base; lip yellow to pink-orange, with a pink flush around the rim; staminode narrowly-triangular, less than 12 mm wide, longitudinally sulcate, with a deep groove along midvein and narrow apex, bright yellow with reddish markings and a white margin
 
.................................................................................... 6. P.emersonii
8(1). Inflorescence one-flowered, very rarely with 2 flowers; petals narrowly-obovate to oblong-spathulate, more or less flat, undulate at margin but never spirally twisted, less than 8(8.5) cm long; medium-sized or small plants with more or less herbaceous leaves commonly less than 20 cm long, very rarely longer
 
..................................................................................................... 9
- Inflorescence with (1)2-5 flowers; petals linear-tapering, strongly spirally twisted, much narrower than median sepal, 8-11 cm long; large plants with coriaceous leaves 20-50 cm long, 2-5 cm wide
 
............................................................................... 18. P. dianthum
9. Leaves uniformly green, sometimes with deep green venation; often with purple-violet marks beneath near the base; staminode obovate, obcordate, subcircular or subquadrate with a central umbo or broad convex callus; petals without maroon-violetwarts; lip with plain smooth surface of side-lobes (P. sect. Paphiopedilum)
 
.................................................................................................. 10
- Leaves distinctly tessellated deep-green/light-green, without purple-violet marks beneath; staminode commonly lunate, with falcate side-lobes and a small central tooth, rare broadly obcordate, 3-or 5-dentate at the apex, without distinct central boss; petals with more or less prominent small maroon-violet warts along margin and near the base; lip with warted surface of side-lobes
 
.................................................................................................. 16
10. Staminode subquadrate, smooth, glossy, with a broad central swelling, lacking a glossy umbo; petals purple in apical half
 
.......................................................................... 8. P. hirsutissimum
- Staminode obovate, obcordate or semicircular, rugulose, with a central glossy umbo; petals orange, yellow, yellow with a pink tint, yellowish-brown or light brown
 
................................................................................................... 11
11. Flowers small or medium-sized, less than 6.5 cm across; dorsal sepal shorter than 4 cm; petals less than 4 cm long
 
................................................................................................... 12
- Flowers large, more than (7) 7.5 cm across; dorsal sepal longer than 4.5 cm; petals morethan 4.5 cm long
 
................................................................................................... 15
12. Plants small with coriaceous, rigid, semi-succulent leaves 3-7 (12) cm long; flowers bright yellow to dull yellowish-pink with an ochre-yellow to dull yellowish-pink lip; petals with straight margins, commonly ochre-yellow with orange veins
 
................................................................................. 12. P. helenae
- Plants medium-sized with more or less herbaceous leaves more than 7 cm long; flowers not colored as above; petals with more or less undulate margins, light yellowish-brown or dull yellowish with a pink tint or brown veins
 
.................................................................................................. 13
13. Petals oblong, with strongly undulate margins, light yellowish-green with chocolate-brown veins and flushing; lip chocolate-brown with darker veins; dorsal sepal white with a greenish base and chocolate-brown veins towards the base
 
........................................................................ 10. P. tranlienianum
- Petals spathulate or narrowly obovate, with slightly undulate margins, light yellow-brown or dull yellowish with pink tint and large maroon spots; lip pink-purple or purple-brown; dorsal sepal white with a purple center or dully ellowish with maroon spots
 
.................................................................................................. 14
14. Dorsal sepal subcircular to obovate, with reflexed margins at the base, white with a purple or brownish-purple center; petals narrowly-spathulate, 0.8-1 cm wide, dull yellowish-brown with pink-purpletint; lip yellowish-brown to purple-brown
 
.............................................................................. 9. P. barbigerum
- Dorsal sepal broadly-ovate to ovate, more or less flat, with flat margins at the base, light dull yellowish-green, heavily spotted with large maroon spots; petals broadly-oblong to narrowly-obovate, 1.4-1.6 cm wide, dull yellowish, flushed with pink-purple, spotted with numerous large maroon spots; lip pink-purple
 
............................................................................ 12. P. henryanum
15(11). Dorsal sepal 4.8-5.2 cm long, white, sometimes with light brownish or green at the base, more or less heavily spotted with brown-purple; petals spathulate, usually less than 5.5 cm long, 1.8-2.5 cm wide; peduncle commonly erect, shortly densely hairy with short purple-violet hairs; lithophytic plant
 
.......................................................................... 13. P. gratrixianum
- Dorsal sepal (4.5) 5-7 cm long, greenish with a white margin and glossy maroon central area, rare maroon spotted; petals obovate-spathulate, usually more than 5.5 cm long, 2.5-4.6 cm wide; peduncle commonly arching, densely villosely hairy with long whitishhairs; epiphyticplant,very rare a lithophyte
 
................................................................................. 14. P. villosum
16(9). Dorsal sepal pale green with darker venation, forming a hood arching over the lip; staminode broadly cordate with 1-3 obtuse apical teeth or lunate with broad falcate side-lobes, 3-or 5-denticulate at the apex; petals spathulate, broadening toward apex; lip often with 2-6 obtuse teeth on front margin
 
....................................................................... 15. P. appletonianum
- Dorsal sepal erect, more or less flat, with reflexed margins at the base, white with purple or green veins; staminode lunate with narrow falcate side-lobes and 1-3 small median teeth; petals oblong, sigmoid or elliptic; lip front margin without obtuse teeth
 
................................................................................................... 17
17. Petals more or less sigmoid, down-curved, green with a pink-purple apex and prominent deep maroon hairy warts along the upper margin; dorsal sepal subcircular to broadly-elliptic, white, green/purple striped; lip pink-brown to dull purple; leaves commonly elliptic to obovate, 10-20 cm long
 
.................................................................................16. P. callosum
- Petals elliptic, horizontally spreading, deep-purple, finely purple-violet spotted in lower part, without hairy warts along the upper margin; dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, white, deep-purple striped; lip brown-purple to deep purple-violet; leaves commonly oblong to elliptic, 7-14 cm long
 
............................................................................17. P. purpuratum

1. P. delenatii Guillaum. 1924, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 71: 554, 558; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 16; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 16; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 89. - Cypripedium delenatii (Guillaum.) C.H. Curtis, 1931, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 89: 208.

Described from Vietnam ("Tonkin: Sans localite precise....; Annam: Nhatrang"). Lectotype ("Tonkin, Delenat, cult. Mornay, Fleuriste de la ville de Paris") - P.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 5-7 oblong-elliptic leaves up to 11 by 3-3.9 cm, distinctly tessellated, heavily purple-spotted below. Peduncle with 1-2(3) flowers, purple-spotted, up to 22 cm long; pedicel and ovary up to 5.5 cm long, spotted with purple, white hairy. Flower 7.5-8 cm across, pale pink with pink or purple-pink lip. Median sepal ovate, 1.7-3.5 by 1.8-2.5 cm. Synsepal similar, 1.9-3 by 1.4-2.9 cm. Petals broadly elliptic, obtuse, 3-4.2 by 2.4-3.8 cm. Lip ellipsoidal to subglobose, 2.5-3.8 by 2.5-3 cm. Staminode convex, ovate, 14-17 by 13-16 mm with red and yellow markings. Fig. 16, a-c; 23, a.

Ecology. Shady, broad-leaved, evergreen lowland and submontane forests on granite and gneiss 750-1300 m. Fl. November, December. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dac Lac, Khanh Hoa). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Khanh Hoa, Lieng Ly River, L. Averyanov et al. s.n., Apr. 1995 and Dec. 1995 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH 4304 (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic with range area less than 100 square km., closely allied to calcium dependent Paphiopedilum armeniacum and P. vietnamense. Flowers commonly vary from light pink to pink with purple lip. Individual plants in some populations have white or nearly white flowers.

2. P. vietnamense Gruss et Perner, 1999 (11 Jan.), Die Orchidee Beihefte, 5: 3; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 96. - P. hilmari Senghas et Schettler, 1999 (19 Jan.), Journ. Orchideenfr. 6, 1: 4. - P. mirabile Cavestro et Chiron, 1999 (19 Feb.), Orch. Cult. Protect., 32, 2: 32.

Described from northern Vietnam, Thai Nguyen province ("Cao Bang Province, 1000 m" - exactly wrong). Type ("fl. in cult. November 1998, Dec. 1998, O. Gruss") -K.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 3-5 glossy, oblong-elliptic leaves 8-17(20) by 2.5-7 cm, distinctly tessellated, spotted or flushed with purple beneath. Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 15-25 cm long, purple-violet to purple-brown, white hairy. Flower 10-12 cm wide, pink to purple; lip commonly deep purple on front or around rim. Pedicel and ovary 2.5-2.8 cm long, fine purple spotted. Median sepal erect, elliptic-obovate, 4.2-5.1 by 2.5-3 cm. Synsepal elliptic-ovate, 3-4.6 by 3-3.3 cm. Petals deflexed or spreading, oblong-elliptic, 5-6 by 3.3-4.5 cm. Lip subglobose, 3.5-4 cm across. Staminode large, convex, broadly rhombic, lemon-yellow with white margin and olive-green center. Fig. 16, d, e; 23, b.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen humid forests on rocky crystalline limestone 350-550 m. Fl. March. Extinct in nature (EW).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thai Nguyen). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 31 (HN).

Notes. Bright example of restricted local endemic completely depleted in nature by commercial collectors. All known specimens originate from alone miserable area in Thai Nguyen province. The species presently known only in cultivation is quite variable in both coloration and shape of its flowers.

3. P. malipoense S.C. Chen et Z.H. Tsi, 1984, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 22, 2: 119; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 16; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 104.

Described from S China ("Yunnan: Malipo, Hwang Jin In, 1300-1600 m"). Type ("Nov. 11 1947, K.M. Feng 13161") - PE.

Distribution. N Vietnam, S China, NE Laos.

 
Key to varieties

1. Petals broadly obovate to obovate; lip wider than petals, 3.8-5.4 cm wide; staminode with deep brown-purple or maroon apex; leaves heavily spotted with purple-violet beneath 3a.
 
......................................................... P. malipoense var. malipoense
- Petals obovate to narrowly obovate or lanceolate; lip of equal width or narrower than petals, usually less than 3.8 cm wide; staminode with white, light yellowish or light greenish apex marked with finest brown-purple marks; leaves sparsely spotted with purple-violetbeneath
 
.................................................................................................... 2
2 Petals obovate to narrowly obovate; lip subglobose, more than 1.8 cm wide, truncate attheapex
 
................................................................... 3b. P. malipoense var. jackii
- Petals narrowly obovate to lanceolate; lip narrowly ovate, slightly bilaterally compressed, hooked at apex
 
............................................................. 3c. P. malipoense var. hiepii

3a. P. malipoense var. malipoense.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with creeping rhizome and 4-6 coriaceous oblong leaves 10-16(20) by 2.5-5(7) cm, distinctly tessellated, heavy purple-marked below. Peduncle 30-65 cm tall, 1(2)-flowered, purple-brown spotted, white hairy. Flower 8-12.2 cm across, apple fragrant, light green with brown striped tepals. Pedicel and ovary about 4 cm long, white hairy. Tepals brown striped. Dorsal sepal ovate, 4.4-7.1 by 1.8-4.5 cm. Synsepal ovate, 3.8-5.3 by 2.4-4.8 cm. Petals ovate, 4-7.1 by 3.4-5.1 cm. Lip pale yellow-green to greyish, subglobose, 4-6.5 cm across. Staminode convex, ovate-oblong, 1.3-1.4 by 1.1-1.3 cm wide, pure white, with truncate deep maroon-brown apex. Fig. 16, f-h; 23, c.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and coniferous humid forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 400-1450 m. Fl. March, April. Occasional (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lang Son, Quang Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang). S China, NE Laos.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Na Ri, NTH 3705 (LE), DKH 7554 (HN, LE, MO); BacKan,ChoDon, HAL 4857 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, HAL 8498 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HG 52 (HN, LE), NTH 3580 (HN, LE), DKH 4805 (HN, LE), HAL 8338 (HN), HAL 8377 (HN); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL350 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL703 (HN, LE), HAL832 (HN,LE), HAL871 (HN, LE), N.T. Hiep et al., s.n. (HN, LE), NTH2040 (HN, LE), VH2413 (HN, LE), DKH7707 (HN, LE, MO), DKH7992 (HN,LE,MO), DKH7799 (HN,LE,MO), DKH8058 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Huu Lung, NTH 3258 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6117 (HN), HAL6207 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, VH4759 (HN,LE), HAL5839 (HN), HAL5967 (HN, LE), HAL 6039 (HN); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH7418 (HN, LE), HAL9296 (HN, LE); Son La, Yen Chau, HAL9434 (HN, LE), HAL9505 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 974 (HN,LE), HAL 1047 (HN, LE), HAL3287 (HN), HAL3438 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL3934 (HN), HAL 3935 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 245 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11688 (HN), HAL11735 (HN).

Notes. Very sensitive species, which dies out very fast under deforestation. It is quite variable both in coloration and in shape of its flowers. Albino forms and forms with more deep coloration time to time are recognizing in imported materials.

3b. P. malipoense var. jackii (H.S. Hua) Aver. 1997, Orchids, 66, 2: 153. - P. jackii H.S. Hua, 1996, Die Orchidee, 46, 3: U4.

Described from S China ("Yunnan, Wenshan") - questionable. Type ("12 March 1995, S.S. Hu 3268 A-S") - IBSC.

 
Fig. 16. Paphiopedilum delenatii
 
Fig. 16. Paphiopedilum delenatii: a - flowering plant and flower, b, c - staminode; P. vietnamense: d - flowering plant, e - staminode. P. malipoense var. malipoense: f - flowering plant, g, h - staminode (HAL 6207). P. malipoense var. hiepii: i - flower, j - lip, k, l - staminode.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Leaves light green, lightly tessellated and veined dark green above, light green and sparsely spotted with purple-violet beneath. Flowers differ from the typical variety in having narrower petals, a smaller yellowish-green or green lip and a white staminode, usually with a yellow, yellow-green or green central mark with fine purple venation. Fig. 23, d.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen dry, rather open forests on stratified soft limestone. 550-650 m. Fl. March, April. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Tuyen Quang), S China?

Studied specimens. Tuyen Quang, N.T. Hiep s.n. 1995 (LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL169 (HN, LE), HLF661 (HN, LE).

Notes. Flowers are remarkably variable in the form of petals and coloration of staminode, which may be pure white, yellowish or yellow-green with fine purple venation and marks. In fact, the variety is credibly known only from small area in northern Vietnam in Tuyen Quang province. Reports of this species from China may be based on imported plants originated from this area.

3c. P. malipoense var. hiepii (Aver.) P.J. Cribb, 1998, Genus Paphiopedilum:

88. - P. hiepii Aver. 1998, Orchids, 67, 3: 261. - P. jackii H.S. Hua var. hiepii (Aver.) Koop. 2000, Orchid Digest, 64, 4: 168. - P. angustatum Z.J. Liu et S.C. Chen, 2000, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 38, 5: 464.

Described from N. Vietnam ("Prov. Tuyen Quang, Distr. Tuyen Quang"). Type ("14-15 June 1995, N.T. Hiep s.n.")- LE.

Terrestrial herb. Leaves nearly white with dark green venation above and sparse purple-violet spotting beneath. Flowers differ from the typical variety in narrow ovate or lanceolate petals hooked at the apex, a small narrow laterally compressed yellowish-green lip and a white staminode with few fine purple marks at apex. Fig. 16, i-l; 23, e.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on soft slate limestone and schist. 500-600 m. Fl. March, April. Extinct in nature (EW).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La?, Tuyen Quang). S China?

Notes. Species is known only by type collection. Report from S China may be based on imported plants originated from locus classicus area. Doubtful plants with similar coloration of leaves were occasionally observed in Son La province (HAL9555).

4. P. micranthum T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1, 1: 25, 56; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 17; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 120.

Described from S China ("Yunnan"). Type ("C.W. Wang 86182") - PE.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with creeping rhizomeand 3-5 oblong rigid leaves 5-12(15) by 1.5-2 cm, distinctly tessellated, purple-violet spotted below. Peduncle erect, 1-flowered, 9-25 cm long, purple-brown spotted, white hairy. Flower odorless, 5.8-9 cm tall, thin-textured; tepals yellowish flushed with pink, veined with deep redpurple. Median sepal ovate, 1.5-3.6 by 1.7-3 cm. Synsepal elliptic, 1.4-3.3 by 1.1-2.5 cm. Petals broadly obovate, 1.9-4.3 by 2.3-4.4 cm, ciliate with long white hairs. Lip white to pink-purple, deeply inflated, 5-10.4 by 3.4-5.6 cm. Staminode white, yellow above, spotted with red, conduplicate, 10-12.5 mm long. Pedicel and ovary 3.5-4.6 cm long, brown-purple spotted, white hairy. Fig. 17, a-d; 23, f.

Ecology. Evergreen and semi-deciduous, mixed and coniferous forest on rocky limestone. 600-1600 m. Fl. March, April. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Tuyen Quang), S China.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4771 (HN, LE), HAL 4794 (HN, LE), HAL 4864 (HN, LE), HLF 796 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1477 (HN, LE), CBL 332 (HN); Cao Bang, Ha Lang, CBL 627 (HN, LE), CBL 767 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 555 (HN,LE), CBL 1277 (HN, LE), CBL 1577 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, CBL 1079 (HN, LE), CBL 1222/2 (LE); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5457 (HN), HAL 5643 (HN, LE), HAL 5685 (HN), HAL 5745 (HN); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL1776 (HN,LE), NTH3346 (HN, LE), HAL8594 (HN), HAL 8615 (HN), HAL8653 (HN), HAL8689 (HN); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, CBL 1822 (HN, LE), NTH 3432 (HN, LE), HAL 8504 (HN), HAL 8564 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3576 (HN, K, LE), DKH6173 (HN, LE), HAL 8341 (HN); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6451 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, CBL1940 (HN, LE), NTH3494 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 147 (HN), HLF 659 (HN,LE).

Notes. Very sensitive species, which vanish very fast under deforestation. It is quite variable in coloration of leaves and flowers. Its populations occasionally include albino forms and forms with more deep flower coloration.

5. P. hangianum Perner et Gruss, 1999, Die Orchidee, Biehefte, 6: 3; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 131. - P. singchii Z.J. Liu et J.Y. Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 38,5:468.

Described from N Vietnam ("Bac Thai Province, Tong Ngoc Hang s.n."). Type ("cult. Gruss HAL 072655") - HAL.

Lithophytic herb with 4-7 coriaceous, ligulate, glossy, green leaves (12)15-30 by 3-5 cm. Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 6-12 cm long, shortly white hairy. Pedicel and ovary 3.5-4.2 cm long, bright green. Flower slightly sweetly fragrant, 9-12 cm wide, rather thick-textured, light yellowish or pale yellowish-green. Median sepal ovate, 4-5.6 by 2.2-3.9 cm. Synsepal broadly ovate, 3.5-6 by 3-4.7 cm. Petals broadly elliptic, 4-7 by 2.5-4.5 cm. Lip yellowish-white, ovoid, 3.3-5 by 2.3-3.4 cm. Staminode broadly sagittate, white or yellowish-white with purple anastomosing markings, 1.1-1.7 by 1.1-2.1 cm wide. Fig. 17, e, f; 23, g.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on soft stratified limestone. 450-750 m. Fl. May, June. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Tuyen Quang). Endemic.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4789 (HN), HLF 806 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 126 (HN, LE), HAL 192 (HN, LE).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. There are few doubts that description of P. singchii reported from southern Yunnan is based on plants imported from Vietnam.

6. P. emersonii Koop. et P.J. Cribb, 1986, Orchid Advocate, 12: 86; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 140. - P. huonglanae N.T. Tich, 1998, Hoa Canh (1998), 3: 10-11, nom. inval. - P. emersonii Koop. et P.J. Cribb var. huonglanae (N.T. Tich) N.T. Tich, 1998, Hoa Canh (1998), 4: 12, comb. inval.

Described from China ("China"). Type ("cult. E.W. Charles")- K.

Lithophytic herb with 4-7 coriaceous, ligulate, glossy green leaves, below with sparse purple-violet marks near the base. Peduncle erect, 1-flowered, 10-15 cm long, yellowish-green, shortly white hairy. Pedicel and ovary about 3 cm long. Flower slightly sweet fragrant, 8-10.5 cm wide, rather thick-textured. Median sepal ovate, 2.7-5.1 by 1.5-3.5 cm. Synsepal broadly elliptic, 2-4.5 by 1.8-4 cm. Petals broadly obovate, 3.5-5.4 by 2-4 cm, white villose and sometimes faintly flushed with pink at base. Lip light yellow to dull orange-pink, obovoid, 3-5 by 2-3 cm. Staminode bright yellow with reddish markings, 1.6-2 by 0.8-1.1 cm, deeply longitudinally sulcate. Fig. 17, g-i; 23, h.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen dry forests on rocky solid slaty limestone. 550-750 m. Fl. May, June. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang). S China.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4963 (HN), DKH 7644 (HN, LE, MO); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 031/1 (LE); Thai Nguyen, Vo Nhai, HAL 1581 (HN). Notes. Variable species, particularly in size of flowers, petal shape and color of the lip.

7. P. concolor (Bateman) Pfitz. 1889, in Engler et Prantl, Natur. Pflanzenf. 2, 6: 84; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 16; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 17; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 145. - Cypripedium concolor Bateman, 1865, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 91: t. 5513.

Described from Myanmar ("Moulmein"). Type ("cult. Rucker, Parish s.n.")- K (holotype), W (isotype).

Lithophytic herb with 4-6 oblong leaves 8-16 by 2-4 cm, distinctly tessellated above, spotted with purple-violet below. Peduncle erect, 1-2(3) flowered, 5-8 cm tall, pubescent, dirty-purple spotted. Flowers apple fragrant, 5-7 cm across, white to yellow, finely sparsely spotted with purple. Pedicel and ovary 3-5 cm long, white pubescent. Sepal, synsepal and petals sub-similar, ovate to oblong-ovate, 2-4.5 by 2-3 cm. Lip ellipsoidal to narrowly ovate, fleshy, 2.5-3.8 by 1-1.8 cm. Staminode white with yellow center, finely purple marked, ovate, toothed to acute at apex, 1-1.3 by 1-1.2 cm wide. Fig. 18, a-d; 23, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests and scrub on rocky limestone. 10- 600 m. Fl. March - June. Not rare (VU).

 
Fig. 17. Paphiopedilum micranthum
 
Fig. 17. Paphiopedilum micranthum: a - flowering plant, b-d - staminode. P. hangianum:e - flowering plant, f - staminode. P. emersonii: g - flowering plant, h, i - staminode.

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Bac Giang, Ha Nam, Ha Noi, Hai Phong, Hoa Binh, Lang Son, Nam Dinh, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, Quang Tri, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Vinh Phuc), SE Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia?

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HAL 118 (HN, LE), HLF 615 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 841 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3393/7 (HN, LE); LX-VN 3747 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, DKH 8178 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Huu Lung, NTH 3259 (HN, K, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, NTH 5383 (HN), NMC 1600 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5840 (HN), HAL 6037 (HN); Quang Ninh, Halong Bay, NTH 2631 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5935 (HN); Son La, Moc Chau, NTH 2922 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3705 (HN), HAL 3757 (HN).

Notes. Common lowland limestone species extinct in many places of its former occurrence. Color of flowers varies from yellowish-white to bright yellow. Occasional flowering sometimes observed in December.

8. P. hirsutissimum (Lindl. ex Hook.) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 470; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 19; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 156. - Cypripedium hirsutissimum Lindl. ex Hook. 1857, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 83: t. 4990.

Described from NE India ("East Indian Plants"). Type ("cult. Parker")- K. Distribution. NE India, Myanmar, SW China, N Thailand, N Laos, N Vietnam.

 
Key to varieties

1. Flowers (10)12-16 cm wide; petals (5)7-8 cm long, in basal half strongly undulate on margins
 
................................................... 8a. P. hirsutissimum var. esquirolei
- Flowers 6-8(10) cm wide; petals (2.6)3-4(5) cm long, straight or hardly undulate on margins
 
................................................. 8b. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum

8a. P. hirsutissimum var. esquirolei (Schleichter) Karasawa et Saito, 1982, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5: 40; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 159. - P. esquirolei Schleichter, 1919, Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 4: 39. - P. saccopetalum Hua, 1998, Die Orchidee, 49, 1: 38, forma aberr.

Described from China ("China, Guizhou (Kweichow)"). Type ("Esquirol 3277") - B (destroyed).

Clustering lithophytic herb, stems with 5-7 linear-ligulate leaves 20-45 by 1.5-2 cm, pure green, few spotted with purple on lower surface near the base. Peduncle 1-flowered, 17-25 cm tall, purple-black pubescent, dirty-purple spotted. Flowers 10- 16 cm wide, glossy. Pedicel and ovary 5-7.5 cm long, densely hairy. Sepal and synsepal similar, olive-green, heavily suffused with brown, broadly ovate, 3-4.5 by 2-4 cm. Petals olive-green, rose-purple in apical part, spathulate, 5-8 by 1.5-3 cm, half twisted, with strongly undulated margins. Lip olive-green, spotted with rose-purple, goblet¬shaped, 3-5 by 1.5-2.8 cm. Staminode pale purple with glossy olive-brown center, sub-quadrate, 1 by 0.8 cm. Fig. 18, e-h; 24, a.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 350-1250 m. Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lao Cai, Ninh Binh, Son La, Thai Nguyen, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang). SW China, N Thailand, N Laos.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4669 (HN), HLF 770 (HN, LE), HLF 835 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4893 (HN), Cao Bang, Ha Lang, CBL 694 (HN, LE), CBL 1677 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 1628a (LE - photo); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, Averyanovetal.s.n., 1996(HN,LE), Averyanov et al. s.n., 1997(HN,LE), CBL982 (HN,LE), DH 4349 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL5545 (HN); Ha Giang, Cuan Ba, DKH6213 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH3532 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL290 (HN, LE), HAL318 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, DKH7748 (HN, LE, MO), DKH8187 (HN, LE, MO); Hoa Binh, TungKhe, Averyanov et al. s.n., 1995 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Sapa, Tachtajan56 (LE); Ninh Binh, CucPhuong, HAL1637 (HN), HAL 2854 (HN), DDS11325 (HN), NMC 933 (HN), NMC1593 (HN); Son La, Moc Chau, NTH2971 (HN, LE) HAL 9362 (HN, LE), HAL9506 (HN,LE), HAL 9410 (HN, LE); Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9433 (HN, LE); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL28 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 927 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 969 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 1077 (HN, LE), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 2986 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3288 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 4345 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3716 (HN), HAL 3933 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 663 (HN, LE).

Notes. In the past one of the most common lithophytic species on rocky limestone formations all over northern Vietnam. Very rarely are observed albino forms and forms with inflorescence bearing 2 flowers.

8b. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum (T. Tang et F.T. Wang) P.J. Cribb, 1987, Gen. Paphiopedilum:140;Aver. etal.2003, Slipper Orch.Vietnam:166. - P. chiwuanum T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 56.

Described from S China ("China, south-east Yunnan, Foo-ning Hsien, Banloun, 700 m."). Type ("15 April 1940, Wang 88252") - PE.

Differs in small flowers, 6-8(10) cm wide. Dorsal sepal 1.8-2.6 by 1.8-2.5 cm. Synsepal 1.8-2.4 by 1.1-1.5 cm. Petals, straight or hardly undulate on margins, 2.6-4(5) by 1-1.3 cm. Lip 1.8-2.6 by 1.2-1.5 cm. Fig. 18, i-k; 24, b.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 750-1450 m. Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Hoa Binh, Son La), S China.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1370 (HN, LE), CBL 1588 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL319 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL624 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Tung Khe, Averyanov et al. s.n., 1995 (LE); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7260 (HN, LE).

Notes. Montane race closely allied to previous variety.

9. P. barbigerum T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1940, Bull. Fan. Mem. Inst. Bot. Ser. 10: 23; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 170. - P. insigne (Wall. ex Lindl.) Pfitz. var. barbigerum (T. Tang et F.T. Wang) Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 113. - P.areeanum Gruss, 2001, Die Orchidee, 52, 5: 117. - P. rhizomatozum S.C. Chen et Z.J. Liu, 2002, Journ. Wuhan Bot. Res. 20, 1: 12.

 
Fig. 18. Paphiopedilum concolor
 
Fig. 18. Paphiopedilum concolor:a - flowering plant, b-d - staminode; P. hirsutissimum var. esquirolei: e - flowering plant and flower, f-h - staminode. P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum: i - flower, j, k - staminode. P. barbigerum var. coccineum: l - flowering plant, m - staminode.

Described from S China ("China, Kweichow (Guizhou)"). Type ("Cavalerie & Fortunat 1794") - PE (holotype), P (isotype). Distribution. N Myanmar, N Thailand, S China, N Vietnam.

 
Key to varieties

1. Median sepal white with uniformly pale pink, pink, pink-brownish or carmine center
 
....................................................... 9a. P. barbigerum var. cocineum
- Median sepal white or yellowish-pink with pink to pink-carmine center spotted with numerous contrast dark brown to brown-purple blotches
 
....................................................... 9b. P. barbigerum var. aspersum

9a. P. barbigerum var. coccineum (Perner et R. Herrmann) W. Cavesrto, 2001, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 200. - P. coccineum Perner et R. Herrmann, 2000, Die Orchidee, 51, 5: 623. - P. barbigerum var. lockianum Aver. 2002, Komarovia, 2: 11; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 170. - P. vejvarutianum Gruss et Roellke, 2003, Die Orchidee, 54, 1: 59.

Described from N Vietnam ("Provinz Cao Bang" - obviously wrong). Lectotype - Ic. "Paph. coccineum Perner & Hermann", 2000, Die Orchidee, 51, 5: 622, 623, 624. Herbarium authentic materials ("Giay Giot Thieu ohne Nummer") newer been located.

Lithophytic herb with 4-6 narrowly lanceolate, uniformly green leaves 8-14 by 0.7-1.2 cm. Peduncle 1-flowered, erect, 12-18 cm long, shortly brownish pubescent. Flower 6-10 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 3.1-4 cm long, shortly light brown pubescent. Median sepal white with pink, carmine or carmine-brownish center, broadly ovate, 3- 5 by 2.6-4.2 cm. Synsepal elliptic, 2.4-5 by 1.3-2.2 cm. Petals yellowish-brown to carmine-brown with yellowish margin, spathulate, 3.6-5 by 1-2.2 cm, with undulate margin. Lip yellowish-brown, yellow-pinkish to carmine-brown, 3-4.5 by 3-3.5 cm. Staminode light yellow with orange umbo, obovate, 9-11 by 8-10 mm. Fig. 18, l, m; 24, c.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 1000- 1100 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La), N Thailand?

Studied samples. Son La, Moc Chau, P-9894 (HN), P-10546 (HN, LE), HAL 9406 (HN,LE).

Notes. Variable species, particularly in size and coloration of flower. It is one of the rarestslipperorchidspeciesinnorthernVietnam.OccurrenceinThailand (P. vejvarutianum) was reported on the base of cultivated plants origin of which needs confirmation.

9b. P.barbigerum var. aspersum (Aver.) Aver. comb. et stat. nov. - P.aspersum Aver. 2002, Komarovia, 2: 17; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 254. - P. trantuanhii Gaetan Gogniat et X.G. de Loubresse, 2008, SOS Bull. 1, 1: 2.

Described from N Vietnam ("Son La prov., Moc Chau distr., …"). Type ("Phan Ke Loc, P-9895") - HN. Differs from previous variety in median sepal with pink to pink-carmine center spotted with numerous contrast dark brown to brown-purple blotches. Fig. 24, d. Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 1000-1100 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La). Endemic.

Studied samples. Son La, Moc Chau, P-9895 (HN), P-10547 (HN).

Notes. Like previous variety, this is one of the rarest slipper orchid species
with very restricted range. It has intermediate morphology between P. insigne and other Indochinese races of P. insigne complex (like P. barbigerum var. coccineum and P. henryanum). Both varieties may be certainly found in limestone regions of northern Laos allied to Vietnamese border.

10. P. tranlienianum Gruss et Perner, 1998, Caesiana, 11: 66; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, UpdatedChecklistOrch.Viet.:49;Aver. etal. 2003, Slipper Orch.Vietnam: 175. - P. caobangense Nguyen Thien Tich, 1999, Hoa Canh (1999), 1: 14, nom. illeg.

Described from N Vietnam ("Bac Thai Province, October 1998…" - highly doubtful). Type ("fl. in cult. November 1998, leg. O. Gruss") - RO. Lithophytic herb with 3-6 oblong lanceolate, glossy green leaves, to 18 by 1.7 cm, with paler margin. Peduncle suberect, 1-flowered, 10-18 cm tall, bright green, yellow to purple-brown hairy. Flower 5.5-6 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 2.9-5 cm long, green, brown to purple-brown hairy. Dorsal sepal white, with purple veins, sub-orbiculate, 2.5-3.2 by 2.8-3.4 cm. Synsepal pale green, ovate, 2.4-2.6 by 1.1-1.8 cm. Petals olive-green, veined with chocolate-brown, oblong, 3-3.4 by 0.7-0.9 cm, glossy, white-ciliate, strongly undulate along margins. Lip olive-green, glossy, with a prominent claw-like base, 3.7-3.9 by 1.6 cm. Staminode yellow, obcordate to obovate, 8-10 by 7-9 mm, with glossy umbo. Fig. 19, a-e; 24, e.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests on rocky crystalline and slaty stratified. 400-750 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (CR).

Distribution. N Vietnam (Thai Nguyen, Tuyen Quang). Endemic.

Studied samples. Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 30 (HN); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 183 (HN). Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. The plants exhibit essential variation in size of flower. Very rare they develop inflorescence with 2 flowers.

11. P. helenae Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (Leningrad) 81, 9: 108; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, UpdatedChecklistOrch.Viet.:49;Aver. etal. 2003, Slipper Orch.Vietnam: 182. - P. helenae f. aureum Gruss et Rоth, 1999, Die Orchidee, 50, 1: 3. - P.delicatum Z.J. Liu et J.Y. Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 39, 1: 78.

Described from N. Vietnam ("Cao Bang Prov., Tra Linh Distr., Quoc Toan Subdistr., 850-900 m, near Thang Hen Lake, environs of Thang Hen and Lung Tao villages"). Type ("21 October 1995, L. Averyanov, N.T. Hiep, D.D. Huyen CB 12")- LE (holotype), HN (isotype).

Dwarf lithophytic herb with 3-5 coriaceous to rigid, rather succulent, oblong leaves 3-12 by 0.6-2 cm, green with yellowish margin. Peduncle erect to almost horizontal, one-flowered, 4-7 cm long, shortly black-purple pubescent. Flower 2.5-6 cm across. Pedicel and ovary 2-3.5 cm long, shortly black-purple pubescent. Median sepal dull to bright yellow with white margin, obovate to circular, 1.8-3.5 by 1.5-3 cm. Synsepal white, ovate, 1.5-2.5 by 0.8-1.5 cm. Petals pale yellow to bright orange with darker nerves, straight, ligulate, 1.5-3.5 by 0.4-0.8 cm. Lip pale pink to brownish-orange, saccate, 2-3 by 1.5-2 cm. Staminode yellow, obovate to circular, 7-8 mm across, with central bright yellow to greenish umbo. Fig. 19, f-h; 24, f.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous dry forests on rocky crystalline limestone. 500-900 m. Fl. September - November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Lang Son), S China?

Studied samples. Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4981 (HN); NTH 3716 (HN, LE), DKH 7539 (HN, LE, MO); Cao Bang, Ha Lang, CBL 648 (HN, LE), CBL 744 (HN,LE), CBL 767/1 (LE), CBL789 (HN, LE), CBL 1690b (LE); Cao Bang, Thach An, CBL 830 (HN, LE), CBL911 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, CB 12 (HN, LE), CBL 1140 (HN, LE), CBL 1222/1 (LE); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5456 (HN), HAL 5628 (HN); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6728 (HN).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. Quite possible this species occurred in the past in border territory of S China allied to Cao Bang and Lang Son provinces of Vietnam. It is very variable in plant dimensions and flower coloration. Flowers vary from very small, about 2.5 cm wide, to relatively large up to 6-7 cm across.

12. P. henryanum Braem, 1987, Schlechteriana, 1, 1: 4; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 20; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 191. - P. dollii Lоckel, 1987, Die Orchidee, 38, 5: 266. - P. chaoi Hua, 1999, Die Orchidee, 50, 5: 495.

Described from China ("China, border region to Vietnam"). Type ("1987, Azadehdel s.n.") - SCHLE.

Lithophytic herb with 3-6 lanceolate leaves 10-17 by 1.2-1.6 cm, glossy dark green, with yellowish line along margin. Peduncle suberect to arcuate-pendent, 1-flowered, 12-15 cm long, green, purple-brown pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 3.6- 4 cm long, light green. Flower 4-6 cm across. Median sepal and synsepal light yellowish-green with maroon spots, broadly-ovate to subcircular; sepals 3.3-3.6 by 2.9-3.5 cm, undulate on margins; synsepal 2.5-2.8 by 1.6 cm. Petals dull yellowish to pink-violet, spotted with maroon, spreading, oblong-spathulate, 3.4-3.6 by 1.4-1.6 cm, with undulate margins. Lip rose to pink-violet, deeply saccate, 3.7-4.3 by 1.9-2.1 cm. Staminode yellow with purple tint, broadly obovate, 7-10 by 8-9 mm. Fig. 19, i-l; 24, g.

Ecology. Broad-leaved,mixedandconiferous,evergreenorsemi-deciduousforests on rocky crystalline limestone. 700-1400 m. Fl. September - November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ha Giang), S China.

 
Fig. 19. Paphiopedilumtranlienianum
 
Fig. 19. Paphiopedilumtranlienianum: a - floweringplant, b - flower, c-e - staminode; P. helenae: f - floweringplant, g - flower, h - staminode; P. henryanum: i - flowering plant, j - flower, k, l - staminode.


Studied samples. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4767 (HN), HAL 4817 (HN), HLF 772 (HN,LE), HLF 805 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3533 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, CBL1875 (HN,LE), NTH3323 (HN,LE), HAL8497 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH3590 (HN, LE), DKH6159 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH6460 (HN,LE).

Notes. Local endemic with very restricted distribution. Very variable species, particularly in size of flowers, form and spotting of tepals. Rarely are observed albino specimens.

13. P. gratrixianum Masters ex Rolfe, 1905, Orchid Rev. 13: 63; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 17; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 20; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 199. - Cypripedium gratrixianum Masters, 1905, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 37: 76, fig. 35, nom. inval., non B.C. Williams, 1897. - P. villosum (Lindl.) Stein var. gratrixianum (Masters ex Rolfe) Braem, 1988, Paphiopedilum: 119.

Described from Laos ("Native of Annam"). Type ("Micholitz s.n., cult. Sander") - K.

Distribution. S Laos, Vietnam.

 
Key to varieties

1. Median sepal with green, olive-green to yellowish-green center, sometimes slightly flushed with purple-violet, spotted with numerous small spots
 
................................................ 13a. P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum
- Median sepal pure white, occasionally with light green or purplw violet tint at the base, spottedwith fewrelativelylargeblotches
 
...................................................... 13b. P. gratrixianum var. daoense

13a. P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum.

Lithophytic or terrestrial herb with 4-7 lanceolate, pure green, leaves up to 30 by 2-3 cm, spotted with dirty purple-violet on underside near the base. Peduncle 1-flowered, erect, up to 25 cm long, green, brownish-purple hairy. Pedicel and ovary 4-5.5 cm long, pale green. Flower 7-8 cm across. Median sepal with green to brownish-green center and white margin, more or less heavily spotted with brown-purple, broadly ovate to subcircular, 4.8-5.2 by 4.4-4.6 cm. Synsepal pale green, ovate-elliptic, 3.5- 5 by 2.5 cm. Petals yellow-brown, veined with purple-brown, glossy, spreading, spathulate, 4.5-5.2 by 1.8-2.5 cm, margins undulate or reflexed. Lip yellow to yellow-brown, glossy, 4-4.2 by 2.4-2.8 cm. Staminode yellow, obovate, 10-12 mm long and wide, shortly acute at the apex. Fig. 24, h.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen forests on granite, gneiss and similar silicate rocks. 900-1500 (2000?) m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), S Laos.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, cult., Averyanov s.n., 2004 (LE - photo), Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo). Notes. Available reports of this variety for Vietnam are based on cultivated plants supposedly collected in montane regions along Laos-Vietnamese border.

Occurrence in Vietnam needs confirmation. Very variable variety in coloration of median. Easily forms hybrids with P. villosum.

13b. P. gratrixianum var. daoense Aver. 2002, Orch. Rev. 110, 1247: 287.

Described from N Vietnam ("Vinh Phuc Prov., Tam Dao Distr., vicinities of TamDaotown(21о27’N 105о39’E). Tam Dao ridge at an altitude of 950-1000 m. …"). Type ("10 November 1998. N.T. Hiep, Averyanov L. s.n.") - HN (holotype.), LE (isotype).

Differs from type variety in pure white median sepal, rarely light green or purple violet tinted at the base, spotted with few relatively large purple-brown blotches. Leaves and inflorescence shorter and all plant more compact and miniature. Fig. 20, a-c; 24, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen humid forests on granite, rhyolite and similar silicate rocks. 900-1500 m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Thai Nguyen, Vinh Phuc). Endemic.

Studied samples. Lao Cai, Sa Pa, Averyanov s.n. 2005 (LE - photo); Vinh Phuc, Tam Dao, 10 November 1998. N.T. Hiep, Averyanov L. s.n. (HN, LE), VH 5041 (HN, LE).

Notes. According to observations not confirmed by herbarium collections, this variety may be rarely found also on rocky limestone.

14. P. villosum (Lindl.) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 490; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 19; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 208. - Cypripedium villosum Lindl. 1854, Gard. Chron. (1854): 135. Described from Myanmar ("Burma"). Type ("Lobb s.n.") - K.

Distribution. NE India, Myanmar, S China, Laos, Vietnam, Thailand.

 
Key to varieties

1. Median sepal broadly oblanceolate to narrowly obovate, boldly spotted with deep brown fused blotches, with strongly reflexed lateral margins throughout its length; petals often marked with purple-brown, narrowly spatulate, distinctly attenuate to narrowing stipitate base
 
............................................................. 14e. P. villosum var. boxallii
- Median sepal obovate to suborbicular, without distinct spots, with strongly reflexed lateral margins at lower part; petals without purple-brown marks, with more or less broad, not distinctly stipitate base
 
..................................................................................................... 2
2. Median sepal dark brown with more or less wide yellowish-green to whitish margin
 
............................................................ 14a. P. villosum var. villosum
- Median sepal light yellowish-green, dull pink to purple, or white with more or less wide median longitudinal brown stripe
 
..................................................................................................... 3
3. Median sepal white, with more or less wide median longitudinal brown stripe, sometimes with broad dark brown central area occasionally margining with green
 
....................................................... 14b. P. villosum var. annamense
- Central area of median sepal dull pink to dark purple or dull yellowish-green tinted with light brown along midvein
 
..................................................................................................... 4
4. Central area of median sepal dull pink to dark purple, occasionally greenish at the base; sepal margin commonly white
 
..................................................... 14d. P. villosum var. fusco-roseum
- Median sepal dull yellowish-green, tinted with light brown along midvein, occasionally with white or yellowish-white margin
 
......................................................... 14c. P.villosum var. fusco-viride

14a. P. villosum var. villosum.

Epiphytic herb with 4-5, ligulate, pure green leaves, 14-42 by 2.5-4 cm, on beneath, purple-spotted at the base. Peduncle suberect to pendent, 1-flowered, 7- 24 cm long, green, whitish to black-purple villose. Pedicel and ovary, 3-6 cm long, light-green, densely villose. Flower 7.5-13.5 cm across. Dorsal sepal dark brown with yellowish-green to whitish margin, obovate, 4.5-7 by 3-4.6 cm. Synsepal pale green, narrowly ovate, 3.8-7.6 by 1.8-2.6 cm. Petals yellow-to reddish-brown, often with a central maroon stripe, glossy, spathulate, 4.7-8.6 by 2.5-4.6 cm. Lip yellow-brown flushed with reddish, 4-6.8 by 3-3.8 cm. Staminode yellow, obovate, about 16 by 14 mm, with a central glossy umbo. Fig. 25, a.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen and mixed humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300-2000 m. Fl. November - March. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Lam Dong), NE India, Myanmar, SW China, Laos, Thailand.

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. This is most common and widespread variety. It commonly grows as typical humus epiphyte.

14b. P. villosum var. annamense Rolfe, 1907, Curtis Bot. Mag. 133: t. 8126; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 215.

Described from S Vietnam ("Annam, Micholitz s.n., cult. Sander"). Lectotype - Ic. "P. villosum var. annamense" (1907, Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 133, tab. 8126).

This variety differs from the type in pure white median sepal with narrow chestnut-brown longitudinal stripe. Occasionally this central brown stripe on sepal becomes wider forming broad chestnut to brown-purple central area margining with green. Fig. 20, d-f; 25, b.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300-2000 m. Fl. November - March. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Lam Dong). Endemic.

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Gia Lai, Chu Pah, Phan Ke Loc, P-9863 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, VH4349 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov s.n., 1995 (LE-photo), Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo), O. Zaitsev et al. 153 & 281 (LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3120 (HN, LE), VH 3333 (HN, LE).

Notes. Eastern vicarious race of the species, which is rather common in montane forests of southern Vietnam. Very variable. Grows commonly as humus epiphyte.

14c. P. villosum var. fusco-viride Aver. 2002, Komarovia, 2: 17.

Described from S Vietnam ("Gia Lai prov., Chu Pah distr."). Type ("27.05.2001, Phan Ke Loc, P-9845B") - HN.

Flowers wholly dull yellowish with dull yellowish-green median sepal hardly tinted with brown at the center. It commonly grows as lithophytic or terrestrial herb. Fig. 25, c.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300-1700 m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Gia Lai). Endemic.

Studied samples. Gia Lai., Chu Pah, P-9845B (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic of eastern Indochina. May be found on territories of Cambodia and Laos allied to Vietnamese border.

14d. P. villosum var. fusco-roseum Aver. 2002, Komarovia, 2: 17. - P. macranrhum Z.J. Liu et S.C. Chen, 2002, Acta Bot. Yunnan. 24, 6: 712.

Described from S Vietnam ("Gia Lai prov., Chu Pah distr."). Type ("27.05.2001, Phan Ke Loc, P-9845A") - HN.

Median sepal with pink to purple center bordering with pure. Occasionally pink central area of the sepal at the base tinted with light green. Often whole flower may be light dull yellowish with nearly white median sepal slightly tinted with pink. Fig 25, d.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved mixed and evergreen humid forests mainly on silicate rocks. 1300-1700 m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Gia Lai), E Cambodia.

Studied samples. Gia Lai, Chu Pah, P-9845A (HN); Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

Notes. Local endemic of eastern Indochina. May be also found on the territory of Laos allied to Vietnamese border. It commonly grows as lithophytic and terrestrial.

14e. P. villosum var. boxallii (Reichenb. f.) Pfitz. 1903, in Engler, Pflanzenr. 4, 50, 12, Orch. Pleon.: 73; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 217. - Cypripedium boxallii Reichenb. f. 1877, Gard. Chron. n.s. 7: 367.

Described from Myanmar ("Burma, Moulmein"). Type ("Boxall s.n.") -W.

This variety is distinguished by its deep colored flowers with a boldly spotted narrow median sepal and narrow lateral petals heavily striped with purple-brown. Fig. 25, e.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen humid mountain forests? Fl.? Probably very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai, Lai Chau)?, Myanmar.

Studied samples. Lao Cai, Sa Pa, Averyanov s.n., 2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. Many plants of this rare variety collected in nature are cultivated in Sa Pa town. Meanwhile the occurrence of this plant in Vietnam needs confirmation by herbariumcollections.

15. P. appletonianum (Gower) Rolfe, 1896, Orchid Rev. 4: 364; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 19; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 218. - Cypripedium appletonianum Gower, 1893, The Garden, 1893: 95. - P. hainanense Fowlie, 1987, Orchid Dig. 51, 2: 69. - P. cerveranum Braem, 1999, Orchid. Cult. Protect. 38: 28. - P. tridentatum S.C. Chen, Z.J. Liu et J.Y. Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 39, 5: 455.

Area of the type origin is unknown ("a plant was introduced with some plants of C. Hookerae"). Type ("hort. F. Appleton, April 1893") - K.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with 4-8 oblong-elliptic leaves 7-25 by 2-4 cm, distinctly tessellated. Peduncle erect, 1(2)-flowered, 20-50 cm long, purple, shortly pubescent. Pedicel and ovary dull dirty purple spotted, 3-6 cm long. Flower 6-12 cm across. Dorsal sepal olive-green, often brown-purple striped, ovate, 2.7-4.5 by 2-3.2 cm. Synsepal green, elliptic, 2-3 by 1.1-1.5 cm. Petals green with darker green and olive-brown stripes and maroon-black spots in basal half, pale pink-purple to the apex, spatulate, 4.4-6 by 1.2-1.8 cm, often with marginal maroon-black warts along upper margin. Lip olive-green, often with pale purple tint, 3.6-4.6 cm long; front margin more or less distinctly 2-6-dentate. Staminode yellowish to green with yellowish margin and central yellowish spot, from broadly obcordate to deeply transversely lunate, with 2, 4 or 5 toothed apex, 7-9 by 8-9 mm. Fig. 20, g-k; 25, f.

Ecology. Shady broad-leaved evergreen, mixed and coniferous humid forests on granite, gneiss and sandstone. 700-2000 m. Fl. March - May. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Lac, Dak Nong, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Thuan, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien - Hue), China (Hainan), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia.

Studied samples. Dak Lac, Krong Bong, VH 6351 (HN, LE); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5671 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Le, QD-12 (LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, VH4281 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, VH 964 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, VH 5316 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, L. Averyanov, N.T. Hiep VH s.n., 1995 (LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3405 (HN, LE,), VH 4123 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Son, VH 3530 (HN, LE), VH 3626 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5800 d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0072/HLF5800 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7607 (HN); Thua Thien -Hue, Phu Loc, HLF959 (HN), HLF 1049 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 11715 (HN).

Notes. One of the most common and variable species, particularly in coloration of flowers, form of tepals and staminode. Very rarely some specimens in wild populations form two-flowered inflorescence.

16. P. callosum (Reichenb. f.) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 457; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 230. - Cypripedium callosum Reichenb. f. 1886, Gard. Chron. Ser. 2, 26:326. - P. callosum var. angustipetalum Guillaum. 1924, Bull. Soc. Bot. France Ser. 4, 24: 551. - P. amabile auct. non Hallier.: Seidenf. 1975, Contrib. Revis. Orch. Fl. Cambod. Laos Vietnam: 88; Aver. 1988, Prelim. List Vietnam. Orch. 2: 31.

 
Fig. 20. Paphiopedilum gratrixianum
 
Fig. 20. Paphiopedilum gratrixianum var. daoense: a - flowering plant, b, c - staminode; P. villosum var. annamense: d - flowering plant, e, f - staminode; P. appletonianum:g - flowering plant, h - flower, i, j - staminode, k - variation of staminode shape.

Described from Thailand ("Siam"). Type ("Regnier s.n.") - W.

Distribution. Thailand, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia.

 
Key to varieties

1. Petals strongly sigmoid, distinctly down deflexed, usually more than 5 cm long, commonly with ciliate warts along upper and lower margin; median sepal usually more than 5 cm wide
 
.......................................................... 16a. P. callosum var. callosum
- Petals hardly sigmoid or straight, borne at an angle of 45° to the horizontal, usually less than 5 cm long, with few ciliate warts along upper margin or without marginal warts at all; median sepal usually less than 5 cm wide
 
.................................................................................................... 2
2....... Petals bear few warts only on the upper margin
 
.................................................... 16b. P. callosum var. warnerianum
- Petals lack the marginal warts at all
 
..................................................... 16c. P. callosum var. potentianum

16a. P. callosum var. callosum.

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb with 3-6 oblong-elliptic, distinctly tessellated leaves, 10-20 by 3.2-4.8 cm. Peduncle 1-flowered, 20-40 cm tall, marked with purple, purple-pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 3-6.5 cm long, green, flushed with purple. Flowers 8-11 cm across. Dorsal sepal white, veined with purple and green, with small silver warts near the base, broadly obovate, 4-5.5 by 4.2-6 cm. Synsepal white to greenish, elliptic, 2.7-3.2 by 1.6-2.5 cm. Petals greenish with a purple apical third, spotted with maroon, sigmoid, ligulate, 4.6-6.8 by 1.2-1.8 cm, with maroon ciliated marginal warts. Lip dull brown-purple, warted on side lobes, 2.5-4.4 by 2-2.5 cm. Staminode white to yellowish, with dark green veins, lunate, 7 by 11 mm. Fig. 21, a-c; 25, g.

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved forests mainly on granite and sandstone. 300-1300 m. Fl. April - June. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kien Giang, Lam Dong, Quang Tri), Thailand, Laos, Cambodia.

Studied samples. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5575 (HN); Gia Lai, Chu Pah, P.K. Loc P-9864 (HN); Khanh Hoa, Tourane, Delacour s.n. (P); Kien Giang, Phu Quoc, N.V. Khoi s.n. (LE - photo); Lam Dong, Dalat area., Grillet 51 (P), Grillet 215 (P), Averyanov, Hiep VH s.n., 2000 (LE); Quang Tri, Lao-bao, Dalacour s.n. (P).

Notes. Widespread, but presently very rare and highly endangered species. Obviously old records for Vietnam were based on populations which are now already extinct. Very variable, particularly in form and coloration of sepal and petals. Some specimens in the wild rarely form 2-flowered stalk as well as albino or sub-albino flowers.

16b. P. callosum var. warnerianum (T. Moore) P.J. Cribb ex Aver. comb. nov. - Cypripedium barbatum var. warnerianum T. Moore, 1878, Warner Select. Orchid. Ser. 3, Pl. 3, t. 11. - C. callosum var. sublaeve Reichenb. f. 1888, Gard. Chron. Ser. 3, 3: 331. - P. callosum var. sublaeve (Reichenb. f.) P.J. Cribb, 1987, Gen. Paphiopedilum: 188.

Origin of the type unknown. Lectotype - Ic. "Paphiopedilum callosum var. warnerianum" (T. Moore, 1878, l.c. Pl. 3, t. 11).

Differs from type variety in smaller flowers. Median sepal smaller, 3.4-4.2 by 3-4.1 cm. Petals shorter, relatively broader, more or less spread or hardly sigmoid, with warts only on the upper margin, usually uniform green to pink-purple with more dark longitudinal nerves, rarely spotted. Fig. 25, h.

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved lowland and submontane forests. Fl. April - June. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), S Thailand, NW Malacca.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, HAL s.n. 2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. This taxon having main area of distribution in Peninsular Thailand and adjacent north-west Malacca is sometimes regarded as natural hybrid between two vicarious species - P. callosum (distributed in mainland Southeast Asia) and P. barbatum (from Malacca Peninsular and northern Sumatra). Rarely occur samples with 2-flowered inflorescence, as well as sub-albino and albino forms.

16c. P. callosum var. potentianum (O. Gruss et J. Roeth) P.J. Cribb, 1998, Gen. Paphiopedilum, ed. 2: 337. - P. potentianum O. Gruss et J. Roeth, 1995, Caesiana, 5:39.

Described from Thailand ("Thailand"). Type ("cult. E. et G. Potent, Roth s.n.") - HAL. The variety differs from the type in unspotted petals lacking marginal warts on the upper margin and in its narrower dorsal sepal, about 4 by 2.6 cm. Fig. 25, i.

Ecology. Shady evergreen broad-leaved lowland and submontane forests. Fl. April - June. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), Thailand.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat, Averyanov, HAL s.n. 2004 (LE - photo).

Notes. May be certainly found in lowlands of Laos and Cambodia. Rarely forms sub-albino and albino forms.

17. P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 481; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 21; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 49; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 236. - Cypripedium purpuratum Lindl. 1837, Bot. Reg. 23: t. 1991. - C. sinicum Hance ex Reichenb. f. 1853, Walp. Ann. 3: 602. - P. sinicum (Hance) Stein, 1892, Orchideenbuch: 481. - P. purpuratum (Lindl.) Stein var. hainanense F.Y. Liu et Perner, 2001, Orchidee, 52, 1: 64. - P. aestivum Z.J. Liu et J.Y. Zhang, 2001, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 39, 6: 568, fig. 1.

Described from Hong Kong? Lectotype - Ic. "Cypripedium purpuratum" (Lindl. 1837, Bot. Reg. 23, t. 1991).

Terrestrial herb with 4-8 oblong-elliptic, distinctly tessellated leaves, 7-17 by 2.3-4.2 cm. Peduncle 1-flowered, 10-20 cm tall, purple-violet, deep purple pubescent. Pedicel and ovary 2.5-4 cm long, green, whitish pubescent. Flowers 7-10 cm across. Dorsal sepal white, greenish at the base, heavily veined with purple broadly cordate, 2.5-3.5 by 2.2-4.3 cm. Synsepal green with darker veins, narrowly ovate, 2-3.5 by 1.2-1.6 cm. Petals glossy deep purple-maroon, heavily spotted with black-maroon spots, spreading, narrowly elliptic, 3.5-4.6 by 0.9-1.3 cm. Lip purple, 3.3-4.4 by 2-2.7 cm, verrucose on incurved side-lobes. Staminode yellowish, purple tinted along margin, with green veins, lunate, with narrow falcate acute side lobes, 8 by 8-11 mm. Fig. 21, d-g; 26, a.

Ecology. Broad-leaved evergreen and semi-deciduous forests on highly eroded crystalline limestone at elev. 600-1400 m. Fl. September - October. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Lao Cai, Tuyen Quang), SE China.

Studied samples. Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1458b (LE); Lao Cai, Sa Pa, P.K. Loc s.n., 2000 (HN, LE - photo); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 662 (HN, LE).

Notes. Rare species, which populations commonly include very few scattered samples. Leaf tessellation varies from whitish or pale green to deep green. Rarely forms 2-flowered inflorescence.

18. P. dianthum T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1940, Bull. Fan Mem. Inst. Biol. Ser. 10: 24; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 48; Aver. et al. 2003, Slipper Orch. Vietnam: 244. - P. parishii (Reichenb. f.) Stein var. dianthum(T. Tang et F.T. Wang) Karasawa et Saito, 1982, Bull. Hiroshima Bot. Gard. 5: 38.

Described from S China ("China, Yunnan, Mengtze, …"). Type ("Wang et Liu, 83446") - PE.

Large lithophytic herb forming clumps of up to 15 growths, each with 4-6 coriaceous, ligulate, dark green leaves 20-50 by 2-5 cm. Inflorescence arching or suberect, with 1-7 flowers, green, sparsely papillose below. Pedicel and ovary glabrous, 4-7 cm long. Flowers 12-15 cm across. Dorsal sepal white with green venation at the base, obovate, 3.8-4.3 by 2.2-2.5 cm. Synsepal pale green to white, broadly ovate, 3.5-3.8 by 2.3-2.6 cm. Petals light greenish, olive-green striped, with few black hairy marginal warts near base, linear-tapering, strongly twisted, pendent, 8-11 by 1-1.1 cm, with roundish hairy apex. Lip olive-green, deeply saccate, 4-4.5 by 2-2.5 cm. Staminode obcordate, with a blunt basal umbo, three-lobed at apex, 9-11 by 6-7.5 mm, white with dark green venation in the center. Fig. 21, h-k; 26, b.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, humid forests on highly eroded, crystalline limestone at elev. 600-1450 m. Fl. September - November. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Son La), S China.

Studied samples. Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 394 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3364 (HN, LE), NTH3539 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 680 (HN,LE), DKH7871 (HN, LE, MO); Lai Chau, Averyanov s.n. (LE - photo); Lao Cai, Averyanov s.n. (LE - photo); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7396 (HN, LE), NTH2970 (HN, LE), HAL9328 (HN, LE), HAL9409 (HN); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7279 (HN,LE), HAL 9500 (HN, LE).

Notes. Species is closely allied to P. parishii from Myanmar, Thailand and SW Yunnan, but differs in its lithophytic habit, glabrous inflorescences, bracts and ovary and in white dorsal sepal.

 
Fig. 21. Paphiopedilum callosum var. callosum
 
Fig. 21. Paphiopedilum callosum var. callosum: a - flowering plant, b, c - staminode; P. purpuratum: d - flowering plant, e-g - staminode; P. dianthum: h - flowering plant, i - flower, j, k - staminode.

 
Natural hybrids of Paphiopedilum species reported from Vietnam

P. appletonianum x P. gratrixianum. - P. x affine De Wild, 1906, Trib. Hort. 1: 57.

Described from N Vietnam ("Tonkin"). Type ("cult. Bruxelles") not located.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available.

P. appletonianum x P. villosum. - P.x cribbii Aver. 2006, Orchids. Mag. Amer. Orch. Soc. 76, 6: 458. Fig. 22, a, b; 26, c.

Described from S Vietnam ("Lam Dong Prov., Dalat City area…"). Type ("November 14, 2005, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc. HAL 8626")- HN.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 1500-2100 m. Fl. October - December. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, HAL 8626 (LE -photo).

P. barbigerum (var. aspersum) x P. gratrixianum. Fig. 26, d.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available. Fl. October.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

P. callosum x P. gratrixianum. Fig. 26, e.

Any data on ecology and distribution are not yet available. Fl. October.

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

P. callosum x P. villosum . - P. dalatense Aver. 2001, Orchid Digest, 65, 3: 134. - P. purpuratum auct. non (Lindl.) Stein: Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 20; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 21. Fig. 22, c-e; 26, f.

Described from S Vietnam ("Lam Dong province, Don Duong…"). Type ("cult. Dalat city Institute of Biology. Coll. N.V. Duy, No. P1 11, Nov. 1996") - LE.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 900-1700 m. Fl. April - October. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Don Duong, N.V. Duy, PI 11 (LE); Lam Dong, Dalat area, HAL4581 (LE - photo); Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

P. gratrixianum x P. villosum. Fig. 26, g.

Ecology. Broad-leaved, evergreen and mixed forests on silicate soils at elev. 900-2100 m. Fl. September - December. Rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong).

Studied samples. Lam Dong, Dalat area, Averyanov s.n., 2005 (LE - photo).

P. helenae x P. hirsutissimum. - P. x herrmannii F. Fuchs et H. Reisinger, 1995, Linzer. Biol. Beitr. 27, 2: 1213. Fig. 22, f-i; 26, h.

 
Fig. 22. Paphiopedilumappletonianum x P. villosum
 
Fig. 22. Paphiopedilumappletonianum x P. villosum (P. x cribbii): a -floweringplant, b -staminode; P. callosum ×P. villosum (P. xdalatense): c - flowering plant, d - flower, e - staminode; P. helenae x P. hirsutissimum (P. x herrmannii): f - flowering plant, g - flower, h, i - staminode.
Fig. 23. Paphiopedilum delenatii
 
Fig. 23. Paphiopedilum delenatii: a (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. vietnamense: b (HAL 31); P. malipoense var. malipoense: c (HAL 6207); P.malipoense var. jackii: d (HAL 169); P. malipoense var. hiepii: e (Hiep s.n., 1995, type); P. micranthum: f (HAL 8341); P. hangianum: g (HAL 4789); P. emersonii: h (HAL 1581); P. concolor: i (HLF 5935).
Fig. 24. Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. esquirolei
 
Fig. 24. Paphiopedilum hirsutissimum var. esquirolei: a (Averyanov et al.s.n., 1995); P. hirsutissimum var. chiwuanum: b (CBL 1588); P. barbidernum var. coccineum: c (P-10546); P. barbidernum var. aspersum: d (P-10547); P. tranlienanum: e (HAL 183); P. helenae: f (Averyonov et al., CB 12, 1995 type); P. henryanum: g (NTH 3590); P. gratrixianum var. gratrixianum: h (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. gratrixianum var. daoense: i (Averyanov s.n., 2005).
Fig. 25. Paphiopedilum villosum var. villosum
 
Fig. 25. Paphiopedilum villosum var. villosum: a (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum var. annamense: b (Averyanov s.n., 1995); P. villosum var. fusco-viride: c (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum var. fusco-roseum: d (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. villosum var. boxallii: e (Averyanov s.n., 2004); P. appletonianum: f (HLF 5800); P. callosum var. callosum: g (HLF 5575); P. callosum var. warnerianum: h (Averyanov, HAL s.n., 2004); P. callosum var. potentianum: i (Averyanov, HAL s.n., 2004).
Fig. 26. Paphiopedilum purpuratum
 
Fig. 26. Paphiopedilum purpuratum: a (CBL 1458b); P. dianthum: b (Averyanov s.n.); P. appletonianum × P. villosum: c (HAL 8626, type); P. barbigerum (var. aspersum) × P. gratrixianum: d (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. callosum × P. gratrixianum: e (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. callosum × P. villosum: f (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. gratrixianum ×P. villosum: g (Averyanov s.n., 2005); P. helenae ×P. hirsutissimum: h (Averyanov s.n., 2002); P. malipoense × P. micranthum: i (Averyanov s.n., 2006).

Described from N Vietnam ("North Vietnam, border region to China"). Type ("Herrmann 343/85") - LI.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, closed forests on limestone at elev. 700-900 m. Fl. August - October. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang).

Studied samples. Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5627 (HN); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, L. Averyanov et al. s.n., May 1997 (HN, LE).

P. malipoense x P. micranthum. - P. x fanaticum Koop. et N. Haseg. 1992, Orch. Advocate, 18, 2: 50. Fig. 26, i. Described from China ("ex China..."). Type ("… cult. H. Koopowitz, Paphanatics, unlimited") - K.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved, evergreen, closed forests on limestone at elev. 800-1400 m. Fl. April - May. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang?, Ha Giang?).

Studied samples. Cultivated plants collected supposedly in highland limestone areas of Cao Bang and Ha Giang provinces along border with China.

 
SUBFAMILY SPIRANTHOIDEAE DRESSLER

1979, Selbyana 5, 2 : 204.

Type: Spiranthes L.C. Rich

100-110(18) genera and 1200-1400(65) species. Tropical, subtropical, temperate and boreal areas of all continents.

Trib. 3.1. Tropidieae Dressler

Dressler, 1983, Telopea 2, 4: 422.

Type: Tropidia Lindl.

2(2) genera and 30-40(3) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents.

Corymborkis Thouars, 1809, Nouv. Bull. Sci. Soc. Philom. (Paris) 2 ser. 1: 318; Rasmussen, 1977, Bot. Tidskr. 71, 3-4: 161-192.

Type: C. corymbis Thouars

Sympodial terrestrial herbs with short woody rhizome, fasciculate rigid roots and erect semi-woody bamboo-like unbranched stems up to 4 m tall. Leaves sessile, glabrous, plicate, sheathing at the base. Inflorescences lateral, panicle, with many flowers. Flowers white, resupinate or not. Sepals and petals basally connate to form a short tube, sub similar, long and narrow, widened toward the apex, spreading. Lip as long as sepals, narrow and close to column, except apical ovate reflexed blade. Column long, slender, straight, thickened to the apex. Anther erect, acute. Stigma broad, deeply 2-lobed. Pollinia 2, sectile, with linear caudicle and small peltate viscidium.

5(1) species. Tropical zone of the world.

1. C. veratrifolia (Reinw.) Blume, 1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind.: 125, pl. 43, 1, pl. 42E; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide. Vietnam. Orch.: 29; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 24. - Hysteria veratrifolia Reinw. 1828, Syll. Pl. Nov. Ratisbon. 2: 5.

Described from Java? Neotype ("Java: T. Lobb, 162" - sec. Rasmussen, 1977, Bot. Tidsskr. 71, 3-4: 170) - K.

Stem up to 5 m tall with spirally arranged leaves up to 45 cm long and 12 cm wide, with long sheaths covering stem. Inflorescence up to 10 cm long. Sepals, petals and lip 2-4 cm long. Reflexed apical blade of the lip ovate with finely crisped edges and shortly pointed apex. Column to 2-3.5 cm long. Fruits cylindrical capsule 3-4 cm long. Fig. 27, a,b; 31, a.

Ecology. All kinds of lowland and submontane forests on any soils. 50-1000 m. Fl. May - July. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam(probablyallprovinces).TropicalandsubtropicalAsia, Australia and Pacific islands to Samoa.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4773 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4952 (HN,LE), DKH 7631 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Kien 147 CP (HN, LE); Ha Son Binh, Luong Son, Tiep et al., NOT-2765 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, 1988, LX-VN 3340, LX-VN 3779 (HN, LE); Hoang Lien Son, Dan Khao, 1964, sine coll. 3178 (HN, LE); Kim Son, Trung, 1702 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, N.T. Hiep, NTH 5364 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6101 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Ke Bang, VH 4609; VH 4768 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL5870 (HN, LE), Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL10087 (HN,LE), Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6606 (HN, LE).

Note. This tallest, shrub-like orchid in Vietnam is sometimes truly named as "bamboo orchid".

Tropidia Lindl., 1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618; Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 108-113. - Schoenomorphus Thorel ex Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 80:351.

Type: T. curculigoides Lindl. Sympodial terrestrial herbs with short woody rhizome, fasciculate rigid roots and erect semi-woody rod-like branched, or superposed leafy stems. Leaves sessile, glabrous, plicate, sheathing at the base. Inflorescences lateral or terminal, a short, dense raceme. Flowers white, not resupinate. Sepals and petals free, or lateral sepals connate into synsepalum. Lip short, spurred or saccate at the base, not mobile, narrowed to down turned, triangular, obtuse apex. Column short. Clinandrium thin-margined. Anther erect, dorsal. Pollinia 2, sectile, with linear caudicle and viscidium.

20(2) species. Tropical zone of the World.

 
Key to species

1. Leaves 2, broadly elliptic-ovate, usually sub opposite at a top of stem; inflorescence terminal, more than 2 cm long; lateral sepals connate into synsepalum
 
.................................................................................. 1. T. angulosa
- Numerous narrowly-ovate leaves distant throughout stem; inflorescence lateral, rare terminal, less than 2cm long; lateral sepals free or connate at the base only
 
............................................................................ 2. T. curculigoides

1. T. angulosa (Lindl.) Blume, 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 122; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 28; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 59. - Cnemidia angulosa Lindl. 1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618.

Described from NE India ("India orientali; in montibus prov. Sylhet"). Lectotype ("Wallich, 7388") - K.

Stem to 40 cm tall, simple or superposed, with 2 apical sub-opposite leaves. Leaves ovate to broadly-ovate, or even circular, acute to shortly acuminate, 6-20 cm long, 2.5-11 cm wide. Inflortescence dense terminal spike 1-4 cm long on erect stalk 2-8 cm tall. Floral bracts narrowly-cuneate to filiform, 5-14 mm long. Flowers white, sweet fragrant. Sepals oblong, 6-7 mm long, 3-4 mm wide, shortly suddenly apiculate at the apex; lateral sepals connate into bidentate synsepalum. Petals smaller, oblong, obtuse. Lip ovate, obtuse, 3.5-4.5 mm long, concave at the base, with strongly turned down brightly yellow apex. Anther ovate, 2 mm long. Fig. 27, c; 31, b.

Ecology. All kinds of lowland and submontane forests on any soils. 0-1600 m. Fl. April - July. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and sub tropical Asia, S Japan, Taiwan, Hainan, Java, Sumatra.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be National Park, HLF 604 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, ChoDon, HLF879 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Ba Be national park, Averyanov et al., CB 46 (HN,LE); CaoBang,BaoLac, CBL1547 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL307 (HN, LE); Dak Lak, Chu Yang Sin mt., HLF5482 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL1223,5261 (HN, LE); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3266, 3335, 3396, 3447, 3660, 3679 (HN, LE, C); Hoa Binh, Lac Son, HAL 9033 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Pa Co, VH 2425 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL9837 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6625 (HN, LE), HLF 6708 (HN); Quang Binh, Ke Bang, VH 4606 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL5867 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5621 (HN, LE); Son La, Mai Son, HAL9586 (HN); Vungtau-Condao, Bay Canh, 1989, Averyanov 412 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1987, Averyanov 881 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1989, Averyanov 512 (HN, LE).

2. T. curculigoides Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 497; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 27; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 27; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 60. - T. pedunculata Blume, 1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind.: 122, pl. 40; Seidenf. 1992, l.c.: 27. - T. graminea Blume, 1859, l.c.: 124, pl. 41, 3; Seidenf. 1992, l.c.: 27. - Schoenomorphus capitatus Thorel ex Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 351.

Described from NE India ("India orientali; montibus Sylhet, et secus ripas fluminis Attran"). Lectotype ("Wallich, 7368") - K.

Stem to 1.5 m tall, often branched, with numerous distant leaves. Leaves narrowly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 5-25 cm long, 0.8-5 cm wide. Inflorescence lateral axillary, rarely subapical, 1-1.8 cm long. Floral bracts triangular-acuminate, acute, 5-10 mm long, densely imbricate, lowest sterile. Flowers white. Sepals and petals free, narrowly-ovate, acute, recurved, 7-10 mm long, petals smaller.

Lip ovate, obtuse, 5-7 mm long, concave at the base, with turned down apex. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 5-6 mm long. Fig. 27, d; 31, c.

Ecology. All kinds of forests on any soils. 0-2000 m. Fl. April - July. Very common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Tropical and sub tropical mainland Asia, Taiwan, Hainan, Malaysia, Java, Kalimantan, Timor to New Caledonia.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be National Park, HLF 618 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, Po Luong mt., HAL4736 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Ba Be national park, CB43 (HN,LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, CBL 1251 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Yen Lac, CBL 307 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH3564 (HN, LE); Ha Son Binh, Luong Son, Tiep, NOT 2765 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, HuongSon, DKH 4381 (HN, LE, MO); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN3340a (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1558 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1383 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL 10094 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, DKH 6538, 6627 (HN, LE, MO); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6620 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt., HLF4276 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5859 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ba Mun, 1987, Averyanov142 (HN, LE); Quangnam-Danang, Phuoc Son, LX-VN 3088 (HN, LE); Thai Nguyen, Dong Hy, HAL 9093 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7888 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1987, Averyanov 770, 806, 880 (HN, LE); Vungtau-Condao, Con Dao, 1989, Averyanov535 (HN,LE).

Trib. 3.2. Cranichideae Endlicher
1842, Mant. Bot. Suppl. 2: 18.

Type: Cranichis Sw.
70-80(16) genera and 950-1050(62) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents, temperate and boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere.

Subtrib. 3.2.1. Goodyerinae Klotzsch
1846, in Hayne, Arzneygew 14, tab. 24 (sub "Goodyereae").

Type: Goodyera R. Br.
38(15) genera and 475-500(61) species. Tropical and subtropical areas of all continents, temperate and boreal regions of Northern Hemisphere, with highest diversity in tropical Asia.

Anoectochilus Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 15; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 11 (sub "Anoecochilus" - sphalm.); id. 1828, Fl. Javae 6, emend. nom. cons.

Type: A. setaceus Blume

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal lax, few flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged in rosette, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, velvety dark green, brown-green to nearly black, with more or less pronounced reticulation of white, yellow or pink nerves. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile yellowish bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals very oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip adnate to column base, spurred. Spur conical to cylindric, with 2 short peltate glands on lateral sides. Mesochile channeled, long to shortly fimbriate-toothed on flanges. Epichile with 2 divergent flabellate spreading lobes. Column short, fleshy, with 2 wings at front, 2 lateral stigmas and prominent rostellum. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium.

30(7) species. Tropical mainland Asia, Indonesia, Australia, New Guinea, Pacific Islands to Polynesia and adjacent islands.

 
Key to species

1. Spur and lip lie in one line or placed at a broad angle; spur more or less parallel with ovary
 
.................................................................................................... 2
- Spur strongly bent down in right or acute angle with mesochile, placed in a wide angletoovary
 
.................................................................................................... 3
2. Mesochile flanges long fimbriate; sepals flat without any callosities; epichile lobes oblong-lanceolate, more or less flat
 
............................................................................... 1. A. roxburghii
- Mesochile flanges toothed; sepals outside with few fat papillae along midvein; epichile lobes triangular-flabellate, truncate, plicate along margin
 
............................................................................... 2. A. papillosus
3. Leaves black or gray-black, rarely dark gray-brown with green tint, commonly dense reticulated with net of silvery-white nerves; mesochile flanges pectinate with more than 10 small dents or short fringes
 
................................................................................. 3. A. calcareus
- Leaves green, dark green to green-brown, rarely black-green, commonly reticulated with net of white, yellowish or pink nerves; mesochile flanges with few blunt dents on 2-6 long fringes
 
.................................................................................................... 4
4. Mesochile flanges with at least 1-2 long linear fringes 3-5 mm long
 
.................................................................................................... 5
- Mesochile flanges with a tfew short dents
 
.................................................................................................... 6
5. Fringes on mesochile flange 4-6, all more or less equal in length; sepals lanceolate or broadly-lanceolate, slightly falcate; column wings broad, rectangular, undulate along margin
 
.............................................................................. 4. A. albolineatus
- Mesochile with 1-3 pair of long fringes, other diminishing toward the base into small narrow dents; sepals obovate, strongly oblique, with short suddenly attenuate apex; column wings narrowly-triangular, straight, acute
 
............................................................................. 5. A. annamensis
6. Spur narrowly-cylindrical, longer than 4 mm; epichile lobules lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, 4-5 times as long as broad; mesochile lobes insignificant, flanges narrow, less than 1 mm wide, slightly erose or with few short irregular denticles near the base ofepichile
 
........................................................................................ 6. A. lylei
- Spur broadly-conical shorter than 4 mm; epichile lobules narrowly obovate, commonly not more than twice as long as broad; mesochile lobes large, erect, triangular, flanges broad, triangular more than 1 mm wide, with 3-4 broad blunt dents along margin
 
............................................................................... 7. A. brevilabris

1. A. roxburghii (Wall.) Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 499; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 32; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - Chrysobaphus roxburghii Wall. 1826, Tent. Fl. Napal.: 37. - A. setaceus auct. non Blume: Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 46.

Described from N India ("India, Mt. Sylhet..."). Syntypes (coll. F. De Silva Wall. Cat. 7387; E India Company, icon. Wallich 34)- K.

Terrestrial herb with 3-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate, acute, to 5 cm long, velvety-green to dark olive-brown, with contrast reticulation of white, yellow or pink nerves, rare only with 1-3 longitudinal colored nerves or uniformly green. Scape pubescent, with 2-4 acuminate yellowish bracts, 12-20 cm tall, with 1- 15 lax flowers. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 7-14 mm long. Ovary glandular pubescent, 1-1.4 cm long. Sepals sub-similar, pink-brown, often with green tint, ovate-oblong, 7-9 mm long, acute, glandular pubescent; median sepal with shortly attenuate, recurved apex; lateral sepals at the base oblique. Petals white, often with brownish-green tint along margin, oblique-falcate, as long as median sepal, attenuate. Lip white, 1.4-1.8 cm long, spurred. Spur at a sharp angle to mesochile, 3-6 mm long, conical, tapering to a minute 2-lobed apex, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile with 4-8 pairs of long fringes along flanges. Epichile lobes narrowly-obovate to oblong, 7-10 mm long. Column 3-4 mm tall, at front with 2 large semicircular parallel wings not entering to the spur and 2 short rostellar arms. Anther ovate, acute, 3-4 mm long. Capsule ellipsoid, 6-10 mm long, 6-7 mm wide. Fig. 27, e-m; 31, d, e.

Ecology. Closed broad-leaved forests of any kind, preferably on silicate soils. 200-1600 m. Fl. November - January, March. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Bhutan, Nepal, India, Sri Lanka, S China, Thailand, Laos.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Tra Linh, VH 4966 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL5562 (HN,LE);DakLac, ChuYangSinh mt., VH 6023 (HN, LE); Gia Lai Kontum, Kontum, LX-VN 2204 (HN, LE); Gialai-Kontum, Kon Ha Nung, LX-VN 2858 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HG68 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, NTH 3477 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, VA N.T. Hiep et al., 857 (HN, LE); Hoang Lien Son, Sapa, Takhtajan,773 (LE);KhanhHoa, KhanhLe, VH2482 (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao mt., VH4271 (HN,LE);Gialai Kontum, Kon Ha Nung, Kbang, LX-VN2858 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH1943 (HN,LE), VH 1944 (HN, LE), VH 1945 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, DKH 4696 (HN, LE, MO); Kontum,Dacuy, LX-VN2204 (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5069 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9833 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup mt., VH3798 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH4138 (HN, LE); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6789 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2002 (HN, LE), HAL 2303 (HN, LE), HAL 2681 (HN, LE); Quangtri, Dongche, Poilane; Son La, Thuan Chau, HAL 9735 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HLF 690 (HN, LE); Vanyen, Chapa, Petelot 12628 (P); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, LX-VN 1356 (HN, LE), LX-VH 2382 (C, HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and very variable species, particularly in leaf coloration, size of flower, length of spur and form of epichile lobes. Widely collected as a medicinal plant used in traditional oriental medicine.

2. A. papillosus Aver. 2007, Taiwania, 52, 4: 287, fig. 1 & 2A.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Hoa Binh Prov., Mai Chau Distr., Pa Co Municipality, Xa Linh village, Rung Gia forests"). Type (HAL 8978) - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

 
Fig. 27.  Corymborkis veratrifolia
 
Fig. 27. Corymborkis veratrifolia: a - flower, b - sepal, petal, lip and column; Tropidia angulosa: c -flower, side and frontal view; T. curculigoides: d - flower; Anoectochilus roxburghii: e - flower and flattened column and tepals, f - spur section with glands; A. papillosus: g - flowering plant and leaf, h, i - flower, frontal and side view, j - dorsal surface of median sepal and petals, k - flattened tepals without lip, l - column, ventral and dorsal view, m - pollinarium.

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 rosulate petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate to almost circular, shortly acute, 2-4 cm long, velvety dark green, with reticulate network of pink nerves. Scape 9-12 cm long, tomentose, with lax 3-5 flowers. Floral bracts, triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 8-10 mm long, sparsely hairy. Ovary 10-12 mm long, pubescent. Sepals light pink-brown, glabrous or sparsely hairy; dorsal sepal ovate, 6- 7 mm long, acuminate, with slightly upward reflexed apex; lateral sepals oblong-oblique, obtuse, 7-8 mm long. Petals white, 6.5-7 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, strongly oblique-falcate, rising from narrow base to oblique broad median part ending in attenuate apex, each on dorsal surface with short longitudinal ridge bearing few massive white, sometime forked capitate papillae. Lip white, with pink-brown tint at the spur apex, 13-14 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped, basally with cylindric spur 3.5-4 mm long; hypochile and spur, placed at narrow angle with mesochile; spur acutely bifid at apex, with 2 large hemispheric sub-sessile glands inside. Mesochile 4-5 mm long, with narrow base and 2 rectangular lateral lobes 2-2.5 mm wide, 3-3.5 mm long, denticulate with 5-10 irregular more or less low cuneate blunt dents. Epichile lobes spreading, oblique-rectangular, truncate, entire, 4.5-5.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column ovate, 4-4.5 mm tall, with 2 short vertical wings at front; wings 1-1.4 mm long, about 1 mm tall, rising at the middle part of column. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 3.5 mm long. Fig. 27, g-m; 31, f.

Ecology. Broad-leaved humid evergreen forests on rocky limestone, commonly in limestone pockets with deep soil. 900-1000 m. Fl. July - August. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Hoa Binh).

Note. Species is known up to now on alone type collection. From all known representatives of the genus A. papillosus differs in petals bearing on dorsal surface short longitudinal ridge ornamented with massive, often forked capitate papillae. On other floral morphology this species approaches to Taiwanese A. koshunensis Hayata, from which differs in large and broad, shallowly dentate side lobes of mesochile. Obviously, this species is local endemic of rocky limestone remnant highlands spreading in north-western Vietnam along Laotian border.

3. A. calcareus Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg) 81, 10: 75, fig. 2. Described from northern Vietnam ("Prov. Hoa Binh, near 1 km of Mai Chau to the E"). Type (20 May 1995, Averyanov et al. s.n.) - LE.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb with 3-4 rosulate petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, acute, to 7 cm long, dark velvety gray-brown to black, with dense network of silvery-white to light pink nerves. Scape hairy, 8-12 cm long, with 3-7 lax flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, tomentose, as long as ovary. Ovary tomentose, 8-10 mm long. Sepals light green, sparsely hairy; dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, 4-5 mm long, acute; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 6-7 mm long. Petals white, greenish to the apex, strongly falcate, attenuate to the base and apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 13-15 mm long, basally with small conical, flattened spur in a wide angle to a claw; spur 3 mm wide, 2.5 mm wide, with 2 capitate gland. Claw 4-5 mm long, with 10-15 pair of dents or short fringes on flanges. Epichile lobes obovate, 5-6 mm long 2.5-3 mm wide. Column 3 mm tall, with 2 small vertical wings broadening proximally, not entering into spur. Anther ovate, acute. Fig. 28, a-e; 31, g.

Ecology. Coniferous and broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone, commonly in limestone pockets with deep soil. 450-1600 m. Fl. January - February. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Lai Chau, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 803 (HN, LE), HAL 4735 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 1583 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6485 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3573 (HN, LE), HG 74 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 843 (HN), DKH 7801 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 8028 (HN, LE, MO); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL10058 (HN); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, HAL 1696 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6055 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, Ke Bang, VH 4764 (HN, LE), HAL 5984 (HN), HAL 5866 (HN, LE - photo); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7437 (JM. LE, MO), HAL 9305 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 2994 (HN, LE - photo), HAL 3439 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Quan Hoa, HAL 3742 (HN), Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9512 (HN,LE).

Note. Typical herbaceous element of rocky limestone at the north of Vietnam.

4. A. albolineatus Par. et Reichenb. f. 1874, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 141. - A. siamensis Schleichter, 1906, Feddes Repert. 2: 83; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 32; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 46; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Myanmar ("Burma - Moulmein"). Type ("Parish 325") - K (holotype), W (isotype).

Terrestrial herb with 2-3 shortly petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves broadly-ovate, acute, 1.5-4 cm long, velvety dark-green to brown-green or nearly black, often with broad irregular median longitudinal white to yellowish stripe or reticulation of pink to yellowish veins. Scape pubescent, with 2-3 acuminate yellowish bracts, 6-15 cm tall, with 1-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, pubescent. Ovary pubescent, 5-10 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, ovate-oblong, 7-10 mm long, acute, sparsely hairy. Petals narrowly-obovate, slightly oblique, as long as median sepal, shortly acuminate. Lip 5-7 mm long, spurred. Spur directed parallel with ovary and claw, 1.5-3 mm long, broadly-conical, notched at the apex, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile with 4-7 pairs of long fringes along flanges. Epichile lobes narrowly-obovate to oblique-flabellate, more or less truncate, 5-7 mm long. Column at front with 2 large narrowly-triangular, parallel wings not entering to the spur and 2 short broad rostellar arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acute, 3-4 mm long. Fig. 28, f-h; 31, h.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1100-1700 m. Fl. November - January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Lao Cai), Myanmar, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1675 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4132 (HN, LE); Muang Xen, Hayata s.n. (TI).

5. A. annamensis Aver. 2005, Rheedea, 15, 2: 83, fig. 1 & 4a, b.

Described from central Vietnam ("Thua Thien - Hue Prov., Huong Thuy Distr., Duong Hoa Municipality, Huong Thuy forest enterprise... Mang Chan ridge"). Type (HAL8177) - HN (holotype), LE (isotype). d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0023/HAL8177.

 
Fig. 28. Anoectochilus calcareus
 
Fig. 28. Anoectochilus calcareus: a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened tepals, d - flattened lip and section of spur, e - column, dorsal and ventral view; A. albolineatus: f, g - flattened tepals and lip, h - column ventral and side view; A. annamensis: i - flowering plant, j - flattened tepals, k - flattened lip and section of spur, l - column and section of spur, side view; A. lylei: m, n - flattened tepals and lip, o - column and spur section, frontal view, p - column, side view.

Terrestrial herb with 2-3 rosulate, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, finely undulate along margin, shortly acute, 3-5 cm long, dark velvety green, olive-green to nearly black, with reticulate network of pink nerves. Scape 7-16 cm long, tomentose, with 3-10 lax flowers. Floral bracts triangular-cuneate, acuminate, 4-6 mm long. Ovary 6-10 mm long, densely pubescent with simple and glandular hairs. Sepals dark olive-brown to reddish-brown, pubescent; dorsal sepal ovate, 4.5 mm long, acuminate, with strongly upward reflexed apex; lateral sepals oblong, obtuse, with broad asymmetric base, 7-9 mm long. Petals light green, 4.5 mm long, 3-3.2 mm wide, strongly oblique-falcate, rising from very narrow base to oblique broad apical part ending in attenuate tip. Lip white with light green fringes, about 17 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped, basally with broadly-conical spur, 3 mm long, 2 mm broad; spur not bent, placed in one line with lip, notched at apex, with 2 large flat stalked semicircular glands inside. Mesochile form narrow claw 1.5 mm long, with fleshy upturned margins and 2-5 back reflexed lateral dents or fringes 1-3.5 mm long. Epichile lobes spreading, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 8 mm long, 3 mm wide. Column 5-5.5 mm tall, with 2 vertical wings at front; wings 2-2.5 mm long, cuneate or narrowly-triangular, acute, rising from the middle of the column. Anther large, narrowly-ovate, about 4 mm long. Fig. 28, i-l; 31, i; 32, a.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved evergreen forests on silicate soils. 100-1000 m. Fl. March - May. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thua Thien - Hue, Vinh Phuc).

Studied specimens. TamDao, LX-VN874 (LE); Thua Thien-Hue, ALuoi, HAL 7172 (HN), HAL 7271 (HN; LE), HAL 7621 (HN; LE), HAL 7766 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6897 (HN; LE); Thua Thien-Hue, Xuan Loc, HLF 1667 (HN, LE), HLF 1825 (HN, LE).

Note. Species superficially resemble widespread and common species A. roxburghii, but actually belongs to group of species with straight (not bent) short spur like A. brevilabris and A. albolineatus. This often overlooked species may be widespread and quite common in low mountain areas of Vietnam.

6. A. lylei Rolfe ex Downie, 1925, Kew Bull. 1925: 411; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from Thailand ("Siаm... Me Awn, 750 m"). Type ("Lyle in herb. Kerr, 297") - K.

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate to almost circular, 2-6 cm long, shortly acute, dark green, green-brown to nearly black with reticulated yellowish to pink nerves, rarely with only 1 or 3 longitudinal colored veins. Scape densely pubescent, with 2-4 yellowish, broad, acuminate bracts, 6-15 cm tall, with 1-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 7-14 mm long. Ovary 10-16 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals sub-similar, ovate-oblong, 7-11 mm long, shortly acute, hairy. Petals obovate, as long as median sepal, strongly oblique, rising from narrow base to broad median part and oblique attenuate apex. Lip 15- 18 mm long, spurred. Spur cylindric, directed parallel with ovary and claw, rare at wide angle with claw, 4-5 mm long, with 2 large peltate, warty glands. Mesochile boat-shaped, with short claw, along flanges slightly erose or with few short irregular denticles. Epichile lobes lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, 8-10 mm long, 1.2-1.8 mm wide. Column 3-4 mm tall, at front with 2 narrowly-triangular, acute wings, not entering to the spur and short bifid rostellum. Anther ovate, acute, 4 mm long. Fig. 28, m-p; 32, b.

Ecology. Closed humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 600-2000 m. Fl. November - January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Gia Lai, Khanh Hoa, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, QuangTri),Thailand.
Studied specimens. Da Tan La river, Col de Pren, Tixier drawing (P); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, Ta Dung mt., HLF 5656 (HN, LE); Dalat, Evrard 1944, 2029 (P); Gialai-Kontum, 1985, Averyanov et al., LX-VN s.n. (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Khanh Son, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4276 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2278a (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5599a (HN, LE); Kontum, Sa Tay, Chu Mom Ray, P-7906a (HN, LE); Langbian, Rolfe; Phu Sapoum, Blao, Poilane 23804 (P); Quangtri, Poilane 11288 (P).

7. A. brevilabris Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orchid. Pl.: 499. - A. griffithii Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 96. - A. sikkimensis King et Pantl. 1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 65: 124; id. 1898, Ann. Bot. Gard. (Cаlcuttа) 8, tab. 391; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 46; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - A. chapaensis Gagnep. 1931, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 3, 7: 679; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - A. tridentatus Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 33, fig. 11; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from NE India ("India, Assam"). Type ("Mack s.n.") - K.

Terrestrial herb with 3-4 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves dark green, with yellow to pink nerve reticulation, ovate, to broadly-ovate, shortly acute, to 6 cm long. Scape pubescent, to 15 cm long, with 1-6 lax flowers and 2-3 acuminate sterile bracts. Floral bracts ovate, acuminate, 6-10 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, olive-green, oblong, obtuse, 6-8 mm long. Petals oblique-falcate, as long as median sepal. Lip white, spurred, 8-10 mm long; spur short, 3-4 mm long, broadly-conical, bifid at the apex, with 2 rather small peltate glands. Mesochile with 3-4 pairs of short blunt teeth on flanges. Epichile lobes divergent, flabellate-triangular, truncate, 7-8 mm long. Column 3-4 mm tall, with 2 narrowly-triangular, obtuse, parallel wings at front and broad bifid acute rostellum. Fig. 29, a, b.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 900-1500 m. Fl. December - February. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai, Vinh Phuc), Bhutan, NE India.

Studied specimens. Tamdao, Hayata s.n. (TI); Tonkin: Cha-pа, Petelot 5147 (P); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, LX-VN874 (HN,LE).

Note. Some specimens from northern Vietnam have intermediate morphology between this species and A. annamensis.

Cheirostylis Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 16; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 413. Type : C. montana Blume

Small terrestrial, lithophytic and epiphytic sympodial herbs. Rhizome creeping, with very swollen, succulent internodes and roots modified into ridges or pillows densely covered by root hairs. Stem ascending, leafy at the base, with erect scape and lax terminal spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate or sessile, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, usually dull green, acute. Scape leafless, with 1-5 sterile hyaline bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, hardly opening. Sepals sub-similar, connate for half of their length to form a swollen tube. Petals connivent or joined to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave, with various papillae on lateral sides, or lacking any glands. Epichile reflexed, 2-lobed, rarely entire, connected to hypochile by entire simple short claw. Column short, erect, with 2 thin prominent stelidia and 2 rostellar arms. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma with 2, small, convex, separated lobes.

50(13) species. Subtropical and tropical zone of the Eastern Hemisphere with main center of diversity in mainland SE Asia.

 
Key to species

1. Leafy stem creeping; leaves distant, distichous, sessile, 4-7 mm long
 
................................................................................... 1. C. serpens
- Leafy stem ascending to erect; leaves rosulate, spirally arranged, petiolate, usually longer than 7 mm
 
.................................................................................................... 2
2. Inflorescence sub-sessile, scape less than 1 cm long, much shorter than apical leaves
 
....................................................................................... 2.C. inabai
- Leafy stem ascending to erect; leaves rosulate, spirally arranged, petiolate, usually longer than 7 mm; scape taller than 2 cm
 
..................................................................................................... 3
3. Stem erect; leaves distant in lower part of stem, erect to sub-erect, to 6 cm long, cuneate at the base, sub-succulent, brightly uniform green, glossy; stigma lobes cylindric-conical
 
..................................................................................... 3. C. foliosa
- Stem ascending; leaves usually rosulate at the base of stem, spreading, less than 4 cm long, broadly-triangular to cordate at the base, thin, velvety dull-green to dark green, commonly with dark veins; stigma lobes hemispheric
 
.................................................................................................... 4
4. Epichile narrow, simple, ligulate-oblong, longer than broad; hypochile at the base without glands or with hardly visible rudimentary warts
 
..................................................................................... 4. C. takeoi
- Epichile distinctly broader than long, often 2-lobed, with toothed or fringed lobes; hypochile at the base with slender finger-like glands placed along lateral veins
 
.................................................................................................... 5
5. Lobes of epichile deeply toothed of fringed along margin
 
..................................................................................................... 6
- Lobes of epichile entire, finely irregular denticulate or shallowly crenulate
 
................................................................................................... 10
6. Scape 6-9 cm long with 1-2 flowers
 
.................................................................................................... 7
- Scape normally longer than 9cm, with 1-10 flowers
 
.................................................................................................... 8
7. Leaves glossy, more or less rigid, silvery-gray to light green, with network of dark green nerves; petals narrowly-obovate to oblanceolate; epichile lobes with 5-8 triangular dents; hypochile with numerous fat conic glands along lateral veins
 
.............................................................................5. C. marmorifolia
- Leaves uniform dull gray-green, thin and soft; petals filiform-linear; epichile lobes with 4 finger-like fringes; hypochile with 2 slender glands along lateral veins
 
.................................................................................. 6. C. filipetala
8. Sepals white, 3.5-5 mm long; epichile 1.5-3.5 mm long and wide; epichile lobes usually with 4-7 dents; hypochile on sides with 2(3) glands
 
................................................................................. 7. C. chinensis
- Sepals light olive-green to greenish-pink, 4.5-6.5 mm long; epichile 4-7 mm long and wide; epichile lobes usually with 7-12 dents or fringes; hypochile on sided with 3-5 ormoreglands
 
.................................................................................................... 9
9. Epichile lobes deep lacinate, with long finger-like fringes; leaves usually dark green withlightgreenmedianstripe
 
........................................................................ 8. C. cochinchinensis
- Epichile lobes deeply dentate, with narrowly-triangular teeth; leaves usually light dullgray-green with dark veins
 
............................................................................ 9. C. yunnanensis
10. Scape less than 5 cm tall; lip 5-5.5 mm long; epichile entire, transverse-rhomboid
 
......................................................................... 10. C. thanmoiensis
- Scape normally taller than 5 cm; lip longer than 6 mm; epichile distinctly emarginate or 2-lobed
 
................................................................................................... 11
11. Epichile 2-3 mm wide, emarginate to 2-lobed, with entire semi-circularlobes
 
.............................................................................. 11. C. bipunctata
- Epichile more than 5 mm wide, distinctly 2-lobed, with flabellate to oblique-rectangular lobes, crenulate or denticulate along margin
 
................................................................................................... 12
12. Epichile lobes spreading, to 4 mm long, shallowly crenulate or broadly dentate, with 2-4(5) blunt-roundish indistinct dents; petals obovate, much broadening to the apex
 
............................................................................... 12. C. latipetala
- Epichile lobes convergent, 10-14 mm long, irregular denticulate, with low irregular rounded teeth; petals elliptic, narrowing to the base and apex
 
.............................................................................. 13. C. spathulata

Described from northern Vietnam ("Quang Binh Prov., Bo Trach Distr., Phong Nha - Ke Bang national park..."). Type ("24 January 2005, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc, N.T. Vinh, HAL 6092)" - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Dwarf creeping epiphyte or lithophyte with succulent green stem densely adpressed to the ground. Stem with many distichous, sessile, cordate, acute or apiculate, brightly emerald-green leaves, 4-7 mm long, 4-5 mm wide. Scape leafless, ascending, 1.5-1.8 cm long, sparsely haired, with 2-3 light greenish, ovate, apiculate bracts, and 1-3 flowers. Sepals green, obtuse, sparsely haired, 3.5 mm long, connate on half way to tip from base; dorsal sepal ovate, about 2.5 mm wide, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate to oblong, about 1.5 mm wide. Petals white, spathulate, falcate, broadening from very narrow base to rounded apex, 3-3.5 mm long, 1-1.4 mm wide. Lip white about 2.5-3.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, with central swelling and 2 slender, rather straight gland on each side. Epichile white, with 2 light olive-green to yellow oblong spots at the center, 4 mm wide, 2-lobed; lobes squarish, entire, slightly plicate. Column 2 mm tall, with large, narrowly-ovate anther; rostellum arms subulate, acute, as long as or little longer than anther; stelidia large, of the same length, spathulate, with obtuse to roundish apex. Fig. 29, c-e; 32, c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone. 600-900 m. Fl. January - February. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Quang Binh).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4804 (HN, LE).

2. C. inabai Hayata, 1914, Ic. Pl. Formos. 4: 108, fig. 56. - C. pingbianensisK.L. Lang, 1996, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34, 6: 635. - C. phamhoangii N.T. Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam, 1: 197, nom. inval.

Described from Taiwan ("Rinkoho, ad 5000 ped. alt."). Type ("H. Inaba, Aug., 1911") - TI?

Terrestrial creeping herb with ascending fleshy pink stem 10-15 cm tall. Leaves distant and small at the base, clustered at the apex with 4-5 narrowly-ovate, attenuate, petiolate, green leaves, 3-4 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide. Petiole 1-1.5 cm long. Inflorescence very short, 1-2 cm long, secund, with 3-7 flowers, clustered in dense head-like spike. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, to 1 cm long, glabrous. Flowers pure white. Sepals sub-similar, forming cylindric tube 1 cm long, with 3 teeth at apex. Petals broadly-lanceolate, 1 cm long, 3 mm wide. Lip 1.3 cm long. Hypochile saccate, boat-shaped, at the base with few small close glands along each lateral vein. Epichile conduplicate, broad, 2-lobed, 6-8 mm wide; lobes spreading; each lobe dissected into 5 close fingerlike segments 3-4 mm long, 0.5-0.6 mm wide. Column short. Stelidia narrow-parallel, 4 mm long, sub-equal in length with rostellum arms. Anther broafly-ovate, much shorter than rostellum. Fig. 29, f-i.

Ecology. Ericaceous thickets on silicate soils along tops of ridges. 2000-2150 m. Fl. September. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), S China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Langbian mt., T.07.09.93a (icon "Cheirostylis phamhoangii", N.T. Tich, 2001, l.c.: 199). Note. Very rare species known in Vietnam by the only collection.

3. C. foliosa Aver. 2008, Taiwania, 52, 4: 295, fig. 2e & 7.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Son La Prov., Moc Chau Distr., Chieng Hac Municipality"). Type ("31 Oct. 2006, N.T. Hiep, L. Averyanov, P.V. The, HAL 9415") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Erect lithophytic herb. Stem 10-16 cm tall, leafy and glabrous in lower third. Leaves 2-4, sessile or sub-sessile, narrowly-ovate, erect, acute, 2.5-6 cm long, pure light green, sub-succulent, glossy. Scape 8-14 cm long, densely pubescent in upper part. Rachis densely pubescent, 1.5-2.5 cm long with 5-8 flowers. Floral bracts broadly-ovate, acuminate, sparsely glandular ciliate along margin, 5-6 mm long. Ovary, narrowly-ovate, 4-4.5 mm long, densely pubescent with glandular hairs. Sepals olive-green to dull pink-brown, sub-similar, ovate, 2.8-3.2 mm long, connate on 2/3 from the base, sparsely pubescent. Petals white, spathulate, falcate, broadening from narrow base to rhomboid rounded apex, slightly shorter than sepals. Lip white, 3.5 mm long and wide. Hypochile concave, cup-like, 1.5 mm across, with 1 large longitudinal cristate straight ridge along lateral veins. Epichile papillose, 1.2 mm wide, 2-lobed, lobes square, entire or with 2 indistinct rounded dents. Column 2 mm long, 1.4 mm wide; anther cup lanceolate; rostellum arms narrowly spathulate, slightly shorter than anther cup; stelidia shorter, thick, cylindrical, obtuse, with papillose surface. Fig. 29, j-o; 32, d.

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone, commonly on mountain tops. 1200-1300 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Son La).

Note. Very rare species known by the only type collection.

4. C. takeoi (Hayata) Schleichter, 1919, Fedde Repert. Beih. 4: 171; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, UpdatedChecklist Orch.Viet.:20. - Arisanorchis takeoi Hayata, 1914, Ic. Pl. Formos. 4: 110, fig. 57. - C. eglandulosa Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg), 81, 10: 80, fig. 5.

Described from Taiwan ("Arisan: inter Karapin et Suisharyo, ad 3300 ped. alt."). Type ("Takeo Ito, Mart. 28, 1914") - TI?

Lithophytic herb 5-16 cm tall with 1-3 basal, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaf blade dull silvery-green with unclear green vein network, ovate to broadly-ovate, to 3.5 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis 0.5-1 cm long, with 1-5 lax, hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 3-8 mm long, not longer than ovary, dense tomentose. Ovary obovoid, 3-7 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals outside sparsely pubescent, light olive-pink, narrowly-ovate, 5-7 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length into a tube. Petals white, free, falcate-lanceolate, 5-6.5 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide. Lip white, 6-7 mm long. Hypochile concave, having no glands or with hardly visible rudimentary papillae inside. Epichile strongly bended down, narrowly-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, entire, obtuse at the apex. Column 1-1.5 mm tall. Fig. 29, p-s; 32, e.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 600-1000 m. Fl. March - April. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Lang Son), Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Tra Linh, Averyanov et al., CB32a, 22 Oct. 1995 (LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1372 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Trach An, 5 Dec. 1998, Averyanov et al. s.n. (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1760b (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4895 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6708 (HN, LE), HAL 6709a (HN, LE).

Note. Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on mossy rocky solid limestone.

5. C. marmorifolia Aver. 2000, Turczaninowia, 3, 2: 19. - C. marmorata Aver. 1999, Lindleyana, 14, 4: 216, non Lindl. ex Lem., 1848.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Cao Bang Province, Ha Lang District, Thanh Nhat Municipality"). Type ("27 November 1998, L. Averyanov, P.K. Loc, N.X. Tam, CBL s.n.")- LE.

 
Fig. 29. Anoectochilus brevilabris
 
Fig. 29. Anoectochilus brevilabris: a - flattened tepals and lip, b - column, frontal and side view; Cheirostylis serpens: c - flowering plant, d - flattened tepals, e - column, side view; C.inabai: f - flowering plant, g - flowers, h - flattened sepals, petal and lip, i - column and lip, side view; C. foliosa: j - flowering plants, k - flower, l, m - flattened tepals and lip, n - column, dorsal, frontal and side views, o - floral bract; C. takeoi: p - flowering plant and leaf, q - flower, r - flattened tepals, s - lip, side view.

Dwarf lithophytic herb with creeping chain rhizome and ascending short stem to 6 mm tall with 2-4 rosulate leaves. Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate, rigid, to 2 cm long, light green to silvery white with contrasting dark green veins. Scape erect, pubescent, 6-8 cm tall, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, 3-4 mm long, shorter than ovary. Ovary densely pubescent, 4 mm long. Sepals olive-green, pubescent, ovate, 5 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length forming tube. Petals white, oblanceolate, falcate, 5.5 mm long. Lip 8 mm long, white, with 2 green spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, with fleshy central keel and numerous fleshy glands on each side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes deeply fringed, with 6-7 cuneate teeth. Column 2.5 mm tall. Fruit ovoid capsule 4 mm long. Fig. 30, a-e; 32, f.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 400-1500 m. Fl. December - March. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Son La).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 508 (HN, LE), HLF 650 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1485 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, 27 May 1997, L. Averyanov, N.T. Hiep, VH s.n. (LE); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH7203 (HN,LE).

6. C. filipetala Aver. 2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20, 76, fig. 4.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Kon Tum Prov., Sa Thay Distr., Municipality Sa Son, Chu Mom mountain..."). Type ("17 January 2000, P.K. Loc et al., P8498") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Epiphytic herb with ascending leafy stem to 4 cm long and 3-5 distant petiolate sheathing leaves. Leaf blade dull green, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, to 1.1 cm long, 0.8 cm wide. Scape 5-9 cm tall, densely pubescent, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts triangular, 3-5 mm long, much shorter than ovary. Ovary 8-10 mm long, glabrous. Sepals yellowish-white, sparsely hairy, 4 mm long, dorsal sepal broadly-ovate, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate acute. Petals white 4 mm long, filiform, slightly broadening to the apex. Lip white, with 2 light green spots at the epichile base, 6 mm long. Hypochile concave, boat-shaped, at the base with 2 slender, finger-like glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes fringed, with 4 finger-like segments each. Column narrow, 3 mm long, with 2 long stelidia and rostellum arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acite, 1.5 mm long. Fruit narrowly-ellipsoid, 8-11 mm long. Fig. 30, f-i.

Ecology. Primary wet broad-leaved closed forests on granite. 900-1000 m. Fl. January. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum).

Note. Very rare species known from the only type collection.

7. C. chinensis Rolfe, 1895, in Hemsl. Ann. Bot. (London) 9: 158; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described fromTaiwan and Hongkong ("Formosа... ; Hongkong"). Lectotype ("Henry, 320") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 6-30 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves dull gray-green, narrowly-ovate to ovate-cordate, acute, 1-3 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 22 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, tomentose, with 1-10 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5-10 mm long, sparsely hairy to sub-glabrous, longer than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, sparsely pubescent, 4-7.5 mm long. Sepals white to light greenish, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, joined on ½ - 2/3 of their length, sparsely hairy to sub-glabrous. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 6-7 mm long, white, with 2 greenish spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 2(3) slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 1.5-3.5 mm long and wide, with 4-7 triangular to narrowly-triangular teeth. Column 2-2.5 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fruit obovoid capsule to 9 mm long. Fig. 30, j, k; 32, g.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 300-1550 m. Fl. December - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ha Giang, Lang Son, Quang Binh, Son La), Myanmar, Hong Kong, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 744 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, HAL 8598 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4894 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 5098 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6309 (HN, LE, MO), DKH6511 (HN, LE, MO); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6708 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6056 (HN,LE), HAL 6114a (HN,LE), HAL 6196 (HN, LE), HAL 6352 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5869 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7509 (HN, LE, MO); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7111 (HN, LE, MO).

Note. Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on mossy rocky solid limestone.

8. C. cochinchinensis Blume, 1859, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 55; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20. - C. flabellata auct. non Wight: Gagnep. 1933, Fl. Gen. Indochine 6, 4: 547.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Tourane, Vietnam"). Type ("Gaudichaud 62") - P.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8-25 cm tall, with 1-4 leaves at the base. Leaves dark green with light green median stripe, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, 1-3.5 cm long. Scape sparsely hairy, to 22 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy, with 1-10 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5-10 mm long, glabrous, shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, glabrous, 5- 8 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to pink, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, obtuse, 4.5-6 mm long, joined on ½-2/3 of their length, glabrous. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 8- 12 mm long, white, with triangular green papillose area at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 3-5 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 4-6 mm long and wide, deeply laciniate into 6-10 narrowly-triangular finger-like segments. Column 2.5-3 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fig. 30, l; 32, h.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 700-900 m. Fl. January - February. Occasional (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Quang Binh, Quang Nam - Da Nang), Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6197 (HN); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0006/HAL6197.

Note. Typical element of herbaceous lithophytic limestone vegetation in central Vietnam.

9. C. yunnanensis Rolfe, 1896, Kew Bull. 1896: 201; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from S China ("Yunnan:... at Mengtse"). Type ("Hancock, 25")- K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8-30 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, 1-4 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 25 cm long. Rachis to 1.5 cm long, tomentose, with 1-8 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5-11 mm long, tomentose, longer than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, pubescent, 4-8 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to pink, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, obtuse, 5-6.5 mm long, joined on ½-2/3 of their length, pubescent. Petals white, narrowly-obovate, oblique-falcate, obtuse, narrowing to the base, same length as sepals. Lip 8-12 mm long, white, with 2 green spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, boat shaped, at the base with 3-5 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed; lobes spreading, flabellate, 4-7 mm long and wide, with 6-10 triangular to narrowly-triangular teeth. Column 2.5-3 mm tall, with sub-equal narrowly-triangular, acute stelidia and subulate rostellar arms. Fruit obovoid capsule to 12 mm long. Fig. 30, m, n; 32, i.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 50-1200 m. Fl. February - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hanoi, Lang Son, Quang Binh, Tuyen Quang), NE India, S China, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 510 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1371 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, NTH 3526 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4893 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 5097 (HN, LE, MO); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3600 (HN,LE), LX-VN 3426/16 (HN, LE); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6709 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6307 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5468 (HN, LE); Tonkin, Notre Dame, Tu-vu, Balansa 2003 (P); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, NTH 2060 (HN, LE).

Note. Vicarious species replacing C. cochinchinensis in limestone areas of northern Vietnam where it is typical element of herbaceous lithophytic vegetation on rocky solid limestone.

10. C. thanmoiensis (Gagnep.) Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 194; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20, 79. - Zeuxine thanmoiensis Gagnep. 1931, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 3, 3: 327; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 38.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Tonkin:Than-moi"). Type ("19 Jan. 1886, Balansa 313") - P (holotype), K (isotype).

Stem 6-8 cm tall, with 3-5 leaves at the base. Leaves triangular-cordate, acute, 1.2-1.7 cm long, petiolate. Scape pubescent, 3-4 cm long with 3-4 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, to 6 mm long, pubescent, shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-obovoid, pubescent, to 8 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length, hairy. Petals, narrowly-obovate, oblique, same length as sepals. Lip 5-5.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, at the base with 1-2 slender finger-like glands along lateral veins. Epichile entire, transversely-rhomboid, about 1 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column short, with long falcate rostellum arms and short subulate stelidia. Fig. 30, o-q.

Ecology. Not known. Very rare (DD). Distribution. Vietnam (Lang Son).

Note. The species is known up to now by only type collection.

11. C. bipunctata Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg), 81, 10: 78, fig. 4; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from northern Vietnam ("N Vietnam, Prov. Ha Giang, Distr. Quan Ba, around 4 km to SW from Can Ty town."). Type ("Averyanov et al. HG 72, 27 October 1995") - LE.

Lithophytic herb 10-25 cm tall with 2-4 basal, shortly petiolate leaves. Leaf blade dull silvery-green with unclear green vein network, narrowly-ovate to ovate, to 4 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis 2-3 cm long, normally with 3-8 lax, hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 4-8 mm long, not longer than ovary, dense tomentose. Ovary 5-8 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals outside sparsely pubescent, light green, narrowly-ovate, 5-7 mm long, joined on 2/3 of their length into a tube. Petals white or light greenish, free, lanceolate, 5-6.5 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Lip white or light greenish, 6-7.5 mm long. Hypochile concave, basally with numerous small glands on each side along lateral veins. Claw with 2 brightly green spot on bended part. Epichile entire, emarginate, obcordate, or divided into 2 semi-circular lobes with entire margins. Column 1 mm tall. Anther red. Fruit obovoid, 8-10 mm long, 5-6 mm wide. Fig. 33, a-c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 500-1000 m. Fl. March - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Giang).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4895/1 (HN, LE, MO).

12. C. latipetala Aver. et Averyanova, 2006, Komarovia, 4: 5, fig. 3.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Bac Kan Province, Na Ri Distr., Na Duong village"). Type ("25 November 2002, D.K. Harder, N.T. Hiep, L. Averyanov, DKH 7659c") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

 
Fig. 30. Cheirostylis marmorifolia
 
Fig. 30. Cheirostylis marmorifolia: a - flowering plant and leaf, b - flower, c - sepals and petals, d - flattened lip, e - column, frontal and dorsal view; C. filipetala: f - flowering plant and leaf, g - flower, h - flattened tepals and lip, i - fruit and floral bract; C. chinensis: j - flattened tepals and lip, k - column, ovary and floral bract; C. cochinchinensis: l - flattened lip; C. yunnanensis: m - flattened tepals and lip, n - column, frontal view; C. thanmoiensis: o - flowering plant, p - flower, q - column and lip, side view.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 5-20 cm tall, with 1-5 leaves at the base. Leaves velvety dark green to nearly black, petiolate, triangular-ovate to cordate, acute, to 2 cm long. Scape tomentose, to 22 cm long, with 1-4 flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5-8 mm long, much shorter than ovary. Ovary narrowly-ellipsoid, sparsely pubescent, 5-6 mm long. Sepals white, glabrous, concave, obtuse, 4 mm long, dorsal sepal broadly ovate, lateral sepals narrowly-ovate, all joined on 2/3 of their length. Petals white, much broadening in apical part, broadly obtuse to slightly emarginate, 4 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Lip 6-7 mm long, white, with 2 greenish spots at the base of epichile. Hypochile concave, at the base with 2-3 slender finger-like recurved glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, 3 mm long, 6-7 mm wide; lobes spreading, each with 3-4(5) roundish to broadly triangular blunt teeth. Column 2.5 mm tall, with sub-equal narrow, acute stelidia and rostellar arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, subacute, 1.5 mm long. Fig. 33, d-f; 36, a.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests on rocky limestone. 400-1300 m. Fl. November - December, March. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ha Giang, Son La).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Meo Vac, HAL 8478 (HN, LE), HAL 8526 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HAL 8381 (HN, LE); Son La, Muong Lum, DKH 7111 (HN, LE, MO).

13. C. spathulata J.J. Smith, 1927, Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenzorg, 3 ser. 9: 32; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 35; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 40; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20. - C. grandiflora auct. non Blume: Gagnep. 1933, Fl. Gen. Indochine, 6, 4: 548.

Described from Java ("Java, Soerabajа: Goenoeng Kembangan bei Gresik"). Type ("Dorgelo 2072") -BO, L?

Stem 15-20 cm tall, with 4-6 leaves at the base. Leaves pale gray-green, with dark gray nerves, petiolate, narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long. Scape 12-16 cm long, tomentose, with 2-5 flowers. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, 7- 10 mm long, joined on ½-2/3 of their length, pubescent. Petals oblique-elliptic, narrowing to the apex an base, the same length as sepals. Lip 1.5-1.7 cm long. Hypochile concave, boat-shaped, at the base with 4-6 small terete glands along lateral veins. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes divergent, triangular-flabellate, truncate, apex wavy, with low irregular rounded teeth. Fig. 33, g; 36, b.

Ecology. Limestone at low elevations. Fl.? Occurrence in Vietnam needs confirmation (EX?).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably extinct). Thailand, Java (extinct), Kalimantan.

Studied specimens. Cochinchina, Mt. Chao-lo, Pierre 145 (P).

Note. Insufficiently known species, occurrence of which in Vietnam needs confirmation.

 
Fig. 31. Corymborkis veratrifolia
 
Fig. 31. Corymborkis veratrifolia: a (LX-VN 3779); Tropidia angulosa: b (Averyanov 512 1988 and HAL 5261); T. curculigoides: c (DKH s.n., 1999 Ha Tinh); Anoectochilus roxburghii: d (HAL 9735), e (HAL 3428, HAL 2303, HAL 2002); A. papillosus: f (HAL 8978, type); Anoectochilus calcareus: g (DKH s.n., 2002, HAL 5866, HAL 1696, HAL 2994); A. albolineatus: h (VH 4132); A. annamensis: i (HAL 8177, type).
Fig.32. Anoectochilus annamensis
 
Fig. 32. Anoectochilus annamensis: a (HAL6897); A. lylei: b (P7906a); Cheirostylis serpens: c (HAL 6092, type); C. foliosa: d (HAL 9415, type); C. takeoi: e (HAL 6708); C. marmorifolia: f (Averyanov et al., CBL s.n., 1998, type and HLF 508); C. chinensis: g (HAL 6196 and HAL 8598); C. cochinchinensis: h (HAL 6197); C. yunnanensis: i (HAL 6389).

Erythrodes Blume, 1825, Bijdr.: 410. - Physurus L.C. Rich ex Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 501.

Type : E. latifolia Blume

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged at the base of stem, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green, acute. Scape hairy, leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, resupinate. Sepals free, pubescent, lateral spreading; petals free or connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip lying alongside the column, concave, saccate or spurred, not hidden by the sepals; spur or sac with 1 small flat protuberance or flat papillose wart on each side (usually breaking off in dry herbarium material). Epichile in form of small reflexed lamina. Column narrow, erect, apically setaceous, acuminate, with 1 hollow stigma and 2 sectile pollinia having caudicle and viscidium.

20(2) species. Tropical and subtropical Southeast Asia to islands of SW Pacific.

 
Key to species

1. Lip narrowly-oblong, boat-shaped, longer than 5 mm, about 2.5 mm wide, glabrous, at the base with bifid spur longer than 2.5 mm; epichile sub circular, as wide as lip; sepals 5.5-7 mm long
 
...................................................................................... 1. E. hirsuta
- Lip ovate, concave, 4-5 mm long, 4 mm wide, with dark papillose areas inside, at the base saccate, sac less than 2.5 mm long; epichile broadly-obovate to triangular, as broad as ½ of the lip; sepals 4-5.5 mm long
 
....................................................................................... 2. E. blumei

1. E. hirsuta (Griff.) Ormerod, 1997, in Seidenf. Contr. Orchid Fl. Thailand, 13: 12. - Goodyera hirsuta Griff. 1851, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 393. - Physurus herpysmoides King et Pantl. 1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 65: 124. - E. herpysmoides (King et Pantl.) Schleichter, 1911, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 45: 392. - E. seshagiriana A.N. Rao, 1997, Indian Forester, 123: 643. - P. blumei auct. non Lindl. 1840: Gagnep. 1933, in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-Chine, 6: 567, p. p. - E. blumei auct. non (Lindl.) Schleichter, 1905: Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 28; Aver. 1994, Ident. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam: 35, p. p.

Described from NE India ("Assam, on Burmese frontier, towards Nempean, 1837"). Type ("Griffith s.n.") lost.

Stem up to 50 cm tall with 3-5 petiolate leaves. Leaf blade oblique-ovate, to 10 cm long, acute. Inflorescence glandular-pubescent, rachis to 10 cm long, with numerous flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, equal or slightly longer than ovary, 8-15 mm long. Pedicel and ovary glandular-pubescent, 10-15 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, sparsely glandular pubescent outside, narrowly-ovate, acute, spreading, 5.5- 7 mm long, reddish-brown. Petals whitish, linear-spathulate, dilated at the apex, 5-6.5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip red-brown, spurred, 5-6.5 mm long, oblong, boat-shaped; epichile white, small, transversely oblong or almost circular, entire, deflexed; side-lobes small, erect. Spur short and broad, 2.5-3.5 mm long, bifid at the apex, inside with 1 low insignificant callosity on each side. Column 4-5 mm long. Fruit elliptic beaked capsule, 12-15 mm long. Fig. 33, h; 36, c.

Ecology. Wet closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 300-500 m. Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Ninh Binh, Quang Tri). Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, S China.

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son Distr., Son Hong Municipality, HAL 5215 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, M.V. Xinh et al. MVX 173, CP 1076 (HN, LE); LX-VN 1766, 1767 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 5776 (HN, LE).

2. E. blumei (Lindl.) Schleichter, 1905, in Schum. et Lauterb. Fl. Schutzgeb. Südsee, Nachtr.: 87; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 28; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 35. - Physurus blumei Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 504. - P. chinensis Rolfe, 1896, Bull. Misc. Inf. Kew, 1896: 200. - E. chinensis (Rolfe) Schleichter, 1914, Die Orchideen: 117.

Described from NE India ("India orientali; provincia Sylhet..."). Lectotype ("Wallich 7397") - K.

Stem up to 60 cm tall with 3-4 petiolate leaves. Leaf blade oblique-ovate, to 12 cm long, acute. Inflorescence glandular-pubescent, rachis to 15 cm long, with numerous flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, 4-10 mm long. Pedicel and ovary sparsely pubescent with glandular hairs to subglabrous, to 14 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, subglabrous or sparsely glandular pubescent outside, narrowly-ovate, obtuse, spreading, 4-5.5 mm long, brownish-green with central brown-purple spot. Petals whitish with brown-purple median vein, lanceolate-spathulate, dilated at the apex, 3.5- 5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip pinkish-brown, saccate, 4- 5 mm long, obovate, concave; epichile white, broadly-obovate to triangular, entire, deflexed; side-lobes, erect, hemicircular. Sac short, cup-shaped, 1.5-2.5 mm long, inside with 1 low papillose circular gland. Column 3-4 mm long. Fig. 33, i; 36, d.

Ecology. Wet closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 400-1400 m. Fl. March - May. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ha Giang, Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh, Lao Cai, Thua Thien Hue, Vinh Phuc, Yen Bai), NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, S China, Taiwan, Malaya, Sumatra, Java.

Studied specimens. Ba Be, Bac Kan, Eberhardt s.n.; Ha Giang, Bat Dai Son mt., DKH5073 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL 557 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2266 (HN, LE); Thua Thien Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 904 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, a.1987, Averyanov, LX-VN s.n. (LE); Yen Bai, Regnier s.n.

Goodyera R. Br. 1813, Hort. Kew. 2 ed. 5: 197.

Type: G. repens (L.) R. Br. (Satyrium repens L.).

Terrestrial, lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic sympodial creeping herbs with few rosette leaves and ascending floriferous leafless stem. Leaves petiolate, sheathing at base, acute. Scape erect, with few sterile bracts and 1 to many resupinate flowers in more or less dense, often secund spike. Sepals all parallel to the floral axis, or 2 lateral sepals spreading. Petals oblique, usually connivent and forming hood with median sepal, sometimes joined near their apex. Lip divided into hypochile and epichile. Hypochile saccate, with bristly hairs or lamellar protuberance inside. Epichile simple, entire, oblong-ligulate, usually reflexed. Column short, without appendages at base. Rostellum long, deeply cleft into long arms. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and elongate viscidium. Stigma entire, hemispheric, on the front of the column.

80-100(9) species. Europe, Mainland Asia, Indonesia, N Australia, islands of W Pacific, N Australia, North and Central America.

 
Key to species

1. Rhizome very short, floriferous stem erect; leaves more or less erect, broadly-lanceolate to narrowly ovate; scape, rachis and flowers glabrous; inflorescence dense many flowered spike; sepals 2-3 mm long
 
................................................................................... 1. G. procera
- Rhizome more or less long, creeping, floriferous stem ascending; leaves spreading, narrowly-ovate to broadly-ovate; scape, rachis and flowers mоre or less hairy; inflorescence lax or sub-dense, few-tomany-flowered spike; sepals longer than 3 mm
 
.................................................................................................... 2
2. Large plants, with inflorescence 0.5-1 m tall; spike with more than 30 flowers; leaves 10-20 cm long, creeping stem 5-10 mm thick
 
.................................................................................... 2. G. fumata
- Plants smaller, with inflorescence less than 0.5 m tall; spike with less than 30 flowers; leaves less than 10 cm long; creeping stem less than 5 mm thick
 
.................................................................................................... 3
3. Leaves distinctly reticulated with white, yellow or pink veins
 
.................................................................................................... 4
- Leaves uniform green, sometime with 1 median white stripe or mottled with white irregular spots
 
.....................................................................................................5
4. Inflorescence many-flowered spike 3-7 cm long on scape longer than 5 cm; sepals 3-3.5 mm long, densely tomentose
 
.................................................................................... 3. G. hispida
- Inflorescence subsessile with 1-3 flowers on scape less than 1 cm long; sepals 18- 22 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy
 
..................................................................................... 4. G. biflora
5. Inflorescence with 1-3 flowers 2-2.5 cm across, sepals glabrous, spreading, 12- 14 mm long
 
................................................................................ 5. G. viridiflora
- Inflorescence normally with 4-25 flowers, flowers less than 1 cm across, sepals pubescent or sparsely hairy, not spreading, less than 13 mm long
 
.................................................................................................... 6
6. Floral bracts exceeding half of flowers, longer than 1.5 cm; sepals usually longer than 10 mm; leaves 2.5-10 cm long
 
.................................................................................... 6. G. foliosa
- Floral bracts not exceeding half of flowers, shorter than 1.5 cm; sepals usually less than 10 mm long; leaves 1.5-4 cm long
 
.................................................................................................... 7
7. Sepals 8-9 mm long, pubescent; leaves mottled with white irregular spots, rare pure green
 
.................................................................... 7. G. schlechtendaliana
- Sepals less than 8 mm long, glabrous or sparsely hairy; leaves uniform dark green to dark olive-green, sometimes with white median stripe
 
.................................................................................................... 8
8. Leaves dark uniform green; inflorescence dense secund spike with 10-25 flowers; hypochile glabrous, with 2 lamellate parallel protuberance near the base
 
.............................................................................. 8. G. arisanensis
- Leaves dark green to dark olive-green, with white median stripe; inflorescence lax spike, with few spirally arranged flowers; hypochile pilose with numerous bristly hairs
 
.......................................................................... 9. G. rhombodoides

1. G. procera (Ker-Gawl.) Hook. 1823, Exot. Fl. 1, 3, tab. 39; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.- Neottia procera Ker-Gawl. 1822, Bot. Reg. 8, tab. 639.

Described from Nepal ("Nepal"). Type - icon ("Wallich 619")- K.

Erect terrestrial and lithophytic herb up to 60 cm tall, with 4-8 petiolate erect leaves in basal third. Leaves broadly-lanceolate to narrowly-ovate, 5-15 cm long, 1- 4 cm wide, pure light green. Scape glabrous, with 2-4 sterile narrow, acuminate bracts and dense, many-flowered spike 5-20 cm long; scape finely papillose. Floral bracts glabrous, ovate-lanceolate, acuminate, 5-8 mm long, ciliate along margin. Ovary glabrous, 3-5 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, sub-globose, 3-4 mm across. Sepals similar, concave, ovate, 2-3 mm long, glabrous, light greenish, brownish or olive-green. Petals white, as long as sepals, oblique-spathulate. Lip white, sub-globose, saccate, 1.5-2 mm long, with few slender glands within; apex triangular, blunt recurved, with 2 fleshy tubercles at the base. Column 1-1.5 mm high, with acute rostellar arms, and ovate, acute anther. Fruit ovoid capsule, 4-5 mm long. Fig. 33, j, k; 36, e.

Ecology. Wet open mossy places among secondary grasslands and open shrubs, commonly along rocky stream valleys and on spring seepages, on any kinds of soils. 100-1600 m. Fl. February - May. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces), Sri Lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, India, Japan, China, Taiwan, Hainan, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia, Java, Sumatra, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ngan Son, CBL 1259 (HN, LE); Binh Tri Thien, Bogiang, Dak Lac, Krong Bong, VH 6461 (HN, LE); Gia Lai - Kontum, Dakgley, Bien 565 (HN, LE), Phoong 426 (HN, LE); Gia Lai - Kontum, Kbang, LX-VN 2085 (HN, LE); Gia Lai - Kontum, Kon Ha Nung, LX-VN 1991 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6608 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4834 (HN, LE), Bien 14248 (LE); Hoang Lien Son, Sapa, 19.5.61, sine coll., 2312, 2318 (LE); Kon Tum, Chu Mom Ray, DKH 4553 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Ngoc Linh mt, VH 297 (HN, LE), VH 1190 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Muong Te, HAL 10120 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Phong Tho, HAL 10713 (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4179 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 5756 (HN, LE), HLF 6163 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5901 (HN, LE), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0080/HLF 5901;ThuaThien - Hue,ALuoi, HAL 7266 (HN, LE), HAL 7502 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1732 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Huong Thuy, HAL 8221 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6924 (HN, LE), HAL 10867 (HN, LE); Thuan Hai, Ka-rom.

2. G. fumata Thwaites, 1861, Enum. Pl. Zeylan.: 314; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 28; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Allochilus eberhardtii Gagnep. 1932, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. 2 ser. 4: 591.

Described from Sri Lanka ("Ceylon... Central Province"). Type ("Thwaites CP 3668") - K (holotype), PDA (isotype).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb with ascending fleshy leafy stem 6-10 mm thick and terminal inflorescence 50-100 cm tall. Leaves 3-7; petiole 2-6 cm long; leaf blade oblique-elliptic, acute, 10-20 cm long, 4-8 cm wide, pure green. Scape leafless, pubescent, with few narrow, acuminate sterile bracts, bearing dense, many-flowered spike 15-45 cm long. Floral bracts cuneate, 0.5-1 cm long. Flowers widely opening, light brownish to olive-greenish, lip white. Ovary densely glandular pubescent, 1-1.2 cm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly ovate, obtuse, pubescent, 6-8 mm long; lateral sepals reflexed. Petals oblique lanceolate-spathulate, dilated to the apex, as long as sepals. Lip concave, cup-shaped, 5-6 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, hairy inside, with attenuate narrowly-oblong, obtuse, much reflexed apex. Column stalked dilated above with emarginate rostellum, 4-5 mm long. Fruits obovoid capsule, 1-1.2 cm long, 4-5 mm wide. Fig. 33, l; 36, f.

Ecology. Wet closed forests on any kind of soils, commonly along humid rocky stream canyons. 400-2000 m. Fl. January-April. Occasional (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Dak Nong, Kon Tum, Lam Dong, Ninh Binh), Sri Lanka, India, Myanmar, China, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Java.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HLF 555 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4696 (HN, LE); Bac Thai, Chu-bo; Siam-Khong, Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5610 (HN, LE);Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, 1989, Bao 631 (HN, LE), 20.03.1971, Trong 155 (HN, LE), N.M.Cuong, H.L. Quyen, NMC 289 (HN), D.D. Soejarto et al. DDS 11264 (HN); sine date, MAJ 514 (HN); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, May bac, LX-VN 1811 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2344 (HN, LE); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 833 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3329 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species growing in shady wet woods at different elevations, commonly along stream and wet valleys. Rarely observed in flowers. Typical herbaceous element of humid forest understory.

3. G. hispida Lindl. 1857, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.), 1: 183; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 29; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 36; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.

Described from NE India ("... Khasia Hills"). Type ("Hooker & Thomson 2110") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 6-20 cm tall. Leaves 2-5, petiolate; petiole 0.6-3 cm long; leaf blade ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, 4-14 cm long, 1.2-2.7 cm wide, velvety dark brown-green, reticulated with silvery, yellow or pinkish veins, often with light broad median stripe. Scape pubescent, with 2-4 sterile narrow, acuminate bracts and dense, many-flowered spike. Rachis hairy, 3-7 cm long. Floral bracts glabrous to sparsely hairy, lanceolate, acuminate, 7-11 mm long. Ovary densely hairy, 4-6 mm long. Flowers hardly opening. Sepals ovate, concave, 3-4 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, hairy, olive-green, with white tips. Petals white, of the same length, oblique-oblong, to lanceolate, with wavy obtuse apex. Lip white, concave, cup-shaped, 2- 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, coarsely pubescent within, with attenuate recurved apex. Column 1 mm high, with linear rostellar arms. Fruit broadly elliptic to almost round capsule, 5-8 mm long. Fig. 33, m-o; 36, g.

Ecology. Closed forests on any kind of soils. 150-1500 m. Fl. June - August. Not rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces), India, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4700 (HN, LE), HLF 760 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL 4934 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 310 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 1304b (HN, LE); Dak Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 6102 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6574 (HN, LE), HAL 6421 (HN); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4788 (HN, LE), DKH 4823 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 6346 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Luan Van Bao 707 (HN, LE), LX-VN 1808 (HN, LE), 23 July 1965, Bich et al. 948, CPNP 5149 (HN), 25 March 1971, Hien B-50, CPNP 5123 (HN), 17 July 1971, Hop, Khoi 565, CPNP5122 (HN), 12 July 2002, NMC 1680 (HN), sine date, Aung 784 (HN), sine date, Bich, Nhu, Liem 948 (HN), sine date, Dung 784, CPNP 5124 (HN), sine date, Hien B-51(HN), sine date, N.T. Hiep, NTH 3892 (HN), sine date, Hop, Khoi 565 (HN); Hai Phong, Cat Ba, LX-VN 3446 (HN, LE); Khanh Hoa, Hon Giao, 1997, VH s.n. (LE - photo); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, HAL 1659 (LE - photo); Ninh Thuan, Nui Chua national park, HLF 4286 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Phong Nha-Ke Bang national park, HAL 6189 (HN, LE - photo); Son La, Moc Chau, HAL 9385 (HN); Son La, Yen Chau, HAL 9463 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 337 (HN, LE), HAL 977 (HN), HAL 3010 (HN, LE), HAL 3182 (HN), HAL 3312 (HN, LE), HAL 3371 (HN), Thanh Hoa, Co Lung, 2003, HAL 3312 (LE - photo); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1624 (HN, LE), Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9881 (HN, LE).

Note. Typical shade-loving element of forest understory. It is easily distinguished by its deep velvety brown-green leaves reticulated with silvery, yellow or pink veins. The species is widely collected for traditional oriental medicine and as ornamental plant known under common name - "jewel orchids". Needs special attention for protection.

4. G. biflora (Lindl.) Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. India 6: 114. - Georchis biflora Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 496.

Described from Nepal? Type ("Wall. Cat. 7379") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 5-8 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, shortly petiolate; leaf blade ovate to broadly-ovate, acute, 3.5-5 cm long, velvety dark green, reticulated with silvery veins. Inflorescence sub-sessile with hairy scape less than 1 cm long and 1-3 terminal secund flowers. Floral bracts glabrous to sparsely hairy, ovate to obovate, shortly acute, 0.9-1.4 cm long. Ovary sessile, hairy, 8-12 mm long. Flowers odorless, not widely opening. Sepals oblanceolate, concave, 1.8-2.2 cm long, sparsely hairy, white to light pink. Petals white, of the same length, oblique-rhomboid, with finely plicate margin. Lip white, oblong-ligulate, 1.8-2 cm long, with concave, coarsely hairy base and recurved acute apex plicate along margin. Column erect 2.5-3.5 mm tall; linear rostellar arms and narrowly cuneate anther close each other, to 1 cm long. Fig. 33, p-r; 36, h.

Ecology. Primary evergreen broad-leaved wet forests on silicate rocks. 1500- 1800 m. Fl. April - May. Very rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai), Nepal, NE India, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Lao Cai, Sa Pa, HAL 11135 (LE).

 
Fig. 33. Cheirostylis bipunctata
 
Fig. 33. Cheirostylis bipunctata: a - flowering plant and leaf, b - flower, c - flattened tepals and lip; C. latipetala: d - flowering plant, e - flattened tepals, flattened lip and column, side view, f - ovary; C. spathulata: g - flowers and base of spur; Erythrodes hirsuta: h - lip, frontal view; E. blumei: i - flattened tepals, column and lip; Goodyeraprocera: j - flower and lip, k - column, side view; G. fumata: l - flattened tepals, flattened lip and column, half-side view; G. hispida: m - flowering plant, n - flower without lip and petals, o - lip; G. biflora: p - flattened tepals and lip, q - column, side view, r - floral bract; G. viridiflora: s - flattened flower without petals and lip, flattened lip and flattened petals.

5. G. viridiflora (Blume) Blume, 1858, Coll. Orchid.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Neottia viridiflora Blume, 1825, Bijdr.: 408.

Described from Java ("Java, Salak"). Type ("Blume s.n.") - P.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 12-20 cm tall with 3-4 shortly petiolate rosette leaves. Leaf blade dull green, ovate, with cordate base, 2-9 cm long. Scape 4-15 cm long, pubescent, with 3-4 large, lanceolate, acuminate, sterile bracts, 2-3 cm long and 1-3 pale green to light pink-brown flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, glabrous, ciliate along margin, 1.5-2 cm long. Ovary glabrous, 8-10 mm long. Sepals glabrous, narrowly-ovate, 12-14 mm long; lateral sepals spreading. Petals oblique-rhombic, dilated at the middle, same length as sepals, connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip ovate, as long as sepals, with concave hairy base and attenuate, acute apex turned down. Column 2-3 mm long, widened at the stigma, bearing a very long rostellum to 10 mm long, with long beaked anther behind it. Fruit ovoid capsule to 1.2-1.4 cm long. Fig. 33, s; 36, i.

Ecology. Broad-leaved and coniferous mossy forests, mainly on rocky limestone. 500-2000 m. Fl. March - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, Son La), India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Ryukyu Islands, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia to New Guinea and Samoa.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4865 (HN, LE), HLF 768 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Yen Lac, 25 Dec. 1998, Averyanov et al. s.n. (LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 5278 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2509 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6061 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 6014 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7400 (HN, LE).

6. G. foliosa (Lindl.) Benth. ex Clarke, 1889, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 25: 73; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 29; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 35; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37. - Georchis foliosa Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 406.

Described from Myanmar ("in regno Burmano"). Type ("Griffith s.n.") - K.

Creeping terrestrial herb 15-35 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, petiolate, oblique-elliptic, acute, 4-10 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, pure green, often finely undulate along margin. Petiole 1-4 cm long. Scape leafless, with dense, many-flowered slightly secund spike. Rachis sparsely hairy, 1.5-10 cm long. Floral bracts ovate to lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous, 1.5-2 cm long, as long as half of flowers or longer. Ovary densely hairy, 5- 12 mm long. Flowers odorless, not widely opening. Sepals sub-similar, olive-brown to pinkish, ovate, concave, obtuse, 9-13 mm long, pubescent. Petals white, oblique rhomboid-spathulate, 8-12 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, forming hood with dorsal sepal. Lip white to light greenish or pinkish, ovate, 7-10 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, with concave, cup-shaped, long-papillose base and attenuate, obtuse white recurved obtuse apex. Column 3-3.5 mm tall, with straight, finger-like rostellum arms and narrowly ovate attenuate anther 4-4.5 mm long. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 10-14 mm long, 4-5 mm wide. Fig. 34, a; 37, a.

Ecology. Wet closed forests on any kinds of soil. 400-2000 m. Fl. September- November. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Dak Nong, Ha Giang, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Ninh Binh, Ninh Thuan, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien - Hue, Vinh Phu), Bhutan, Nepal, NE India, Myanmar, Japan, Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailanad.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 614 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, ChoDon, HAL 4870 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Pho Bang, Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5611 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6586 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, NTH 3402 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, Bao 631 (LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1674 (HN, LE); KonTum, DakGley, VH 2334 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2406 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 10027 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, 14 km to NNW from Dalat city, VH 2522 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 2634 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 3126 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2828 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong, 8 Dec. 2001, N.T. Hiep s.n. (HN, LE); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Son, VH 3627 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3967 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Xuan Loc, HLF 1826 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, TamDao, Hiep, 14900 (LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, LX-VN 2356 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species growing in shady wet woods at different elevations, but rarely flowers. Typical herbaceous element of forest understory.

7. G. schlechtendaliana Reichenb. f. 1849, Linnaea 22: 861; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114:29;Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.:35;Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 37.

Described fromJapan ("Japan"). Type ("Göring s.n.") - W.

Terrestrial, lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic herb with 2-6 rosette leaves and ascending floriferous stem 10-25 cm tall. Leaves petiolate, ovate, acute, 2-6 cm long, light green, with white mottling or irregular spots. Scape and rachis densely pubescent. Spike 5-12 cm long, secund, with 5-15 lax to sub-dense flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 6-11 mm long, longer than ovary, hairy. Ovary ellipsoid, 5- 11 mm long, white glandular pubescent. Flowers white, sometimes with greenish or pink tint, apices of sepals and lip sometimes with dark green spot. Sepals sub-similar, ovate, acute, 8-9 mm long, with 1 prominent vein, densely white glandular pubescent; lateral sepals oblique, with reflexed apex. Petals oblique-rhomboid, same length as sepals, finely wavy along margin toward the apex. Lip 6-9 mm long, with saccate, concave, pilose base and oblong-ligulate, attenuate, down curved blunt apex. Column straight, 2.5-3 mm tall, with subulate rostellar arms 4-5.5 mm long and ovate anther. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 8-12 mm long. Fig. 34, b; 37, b, c.

Ecology. Wet mossy cloudy forests and bamboo-ericaceous thickets on mountain tops on any kinds of soils. 1300-3000 m. Fl. September - December. Common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all montane regions with elevations higher than 1300 m), NE India, Nepal, Bhutan, China, Taiwan, Korea, Japan, Thailand, Sumatra.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 311 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 1580 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1799 (HN, LE), NTH 3370 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, HAL 8391 (HN); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, HAL 8404 (HN, LE), Yen Minh, NTH 3495 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, DKH 7923 (HN, LE, MO); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 581 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Tam Duong, HAL 10186 (HN), HAL 10341 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, 14 km to NNW from Dalat, VH 2576 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Bi Doup - Nui Ba national park, HLF 5257 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Doup mt., HLF 5257 (HN, LE), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0038/HLF 5257; Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup mt., VH 3304 (HN, LE), VH4454 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, VH 2868 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, peak of Bi Dup mt., VH 2999 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Fan Si Pang mt., NTH 2317a (HN,LE).

8. G. arisanensis Hayata, 1916, Icon. Pl. Formos. 6: 91.

Described from Taiwan ("Mt. Arisan, ad 2500 m alt."). Type ("U. Faurie, Dec. 1914") - TI?

Terrestrial herb with 2-4 rosette leaves and ascending floriferous stem 5-12 cm tall. Leaves petiolate, narrowly-ovate, dark green, acute, 2-3.5 cm long. Scape and rachis pubescent. Spike dense flowered, secund, with 10-25 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, 4-10 mm long, longer than flowers, glabrous, ciliate along margin. Ovary ellipsoid, to 6 mm long, sparsely hairy or glabrous. Sepals narrowly-ovate, obtuse, 4-5 mm long, with 1 prominent vein, lateral sepals oblique. Petals oblanceolate, falcate-oblique, same length as sepals. Lip 4-5 mm long, saccate at the base and oblong-ligulate, blunt apex. Hypochile concave, protruding outside lateral sepals, glabrous, but with 2 lamellate parallel protuberance near base. Column 1.5-2 mm tall, anther ovate, rostellum with 2 slender arms. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 6-8 mm long, 3-4.5 mm wide. Fig. 34, c, d.

Ecology. Primary broad-leaved cloudy forests and ericaceous thickets on tops of mountains composed with silicate rocks. 2300-2500 m. Fl. October - December. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau), Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Lai Chau, Tam Duong, HAL 10468 (HN, LE).

9. G. rhombodoides Aver. 2008, Taiwania, 52, 4: 297, fig. 8.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Lai Chau Prov., Tam Duong Distr...."). Type ("3 Dec. 2006, Nguyen Tien Hiep, L. Averyanov, Pham Van The, HAL 10338")- HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial herb 12-15 cm tall, with 3-5 petiolate leaves at the base. Leaves oblique, ovate, acute, 1.5-2.5 cm long, 0.8-1.4 cm wide, velvety dark green to olive-green, with white median stripe. Scape 3-5 cm long, short densely hairy, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate, sub-glabrous, sterile bracts 5-8 mm long and lax spike with 3-6 flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, acuminate, sub-glabrous or sparsely hairy, 6-10 mm long. Ovary cylindric, 4.5-6 mm long, 0.8-1 mm wide, short densely hairy. Flowers not widely opening. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, sub-glabrous, 6-7 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide, lateral sepals cucullate, reflexed at a right angle. Petals oblique, lanceolate-rhomboid, as long as sepals, 1-1.4 mm wide, connivent with the dorsal sepal forming forward directed hood. Lip 5.5-6.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide; base hemispheric, cup-like, densely hairy with long hairs; apex entire, oblong-ligulate, slightly concave, obtuse to blunt. Column 2.5-3 mm tall, with 2 short rostellar wings. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 1.6-1.8 mm long. Fig, 34, e-h.

Ecology. Primary broad-leaved evergreen forests on granite and shale. 1900- 2400 m. Fl. September - November. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau).

Note. Very rare species known by the only type collection. On floral structure it resembles Goodyera foliosa, but distinctly differs in twice smaller flowers, small size of plant and in small, dark velvety green leaves with distinct white longitudinal median stripe.

Herpysma Lindl. 1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618. Type: H. longicaulis Lindl.

Terrestrial sympodial herbs 20-35 cm tall, with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal short, dense spike. Leaves narrowly-ovate, 5-9 cm long, acute, distant, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, acuminate. Scape short, pubescent. Rachis 2-3 cm long with several dense flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, obtuse, exceeding the ovary, pubescent. Ovary 8-10 mm long. Flowers sessile, resupinate, white with pink tint or pink median veins on tepals and lip. Sepals sub-similar, free, narrowly-ovate, acute, concave, pubescent, 7-11 mm long. Petals rhomboid, acute, as long as median sepal, joined in upper half and connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurred; blade rectangular, 6-9 mm long, deflexed from the middle, with rounded side lobes and rectangular median lobe with median dent; disk with 2 short triangular keels between side lobes and 1 longitudinal keel on mid lobe. Spur slender, cylindrical, 8- 9 mm long, bifid at apex, inside with several small scattered warts. Column adnate to basal lip margins, 5-6.5 mm tall, wingless, with bifid, rather short rostellum and large entire stigma at front. Anther ovate. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Fig. 34, i-l.

Monotypic genus.

1. H. longicaulis Lindl. 1833, Bot. Reg. 19, tab. 1618; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 28; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40.

Described from Nepal ("Napalia"). Type ("Wallich 7389") - K, C.

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1500-2000 m. Fl. September- November. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), Nepal, Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Sumatra.

Studied specimens. Annam, sine loc, Vernet, 12 (P); Dankia, Langbian, Poilane, 18666 (P).

Note. Very rare species not observed in Vietnam during last decades.

Hetaeria Blume, 1828, Fl. Jav. Orch. 1 Pref.: 7, nom. emend. id. 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 102, tab. 32; Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2 : 94-104. - Etaeria Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 14; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 409, orth. var. rej.

Lectotype: H. oblongifolia (Blume) Blume (Etaeria oblongifolia Blume)

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many-flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green, acute. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, not or hardily resupinate. Sepals free; petals free or connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave with various papillae on lateral sides. Epichile straight, acute or reflexed in form of small circular plate. Column short, erect, with prominent rostellar arms and two wing-like appendages at front. Anther narrowly triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma with 2 convex, separated lobes.

30(5) species. Tropical Africa and Asia, Australia, Pacific islands to Tahiti.

 
Key to species

1. Epichile of the lip minute, less than 5 mm wide, heart-shaped, triangular acute or obtuse
 
...................................................................................................... 2
- Epichile of the lip large, 6-8 mm wide, with large orbicular upwards-backwards turned whitelobules
 
................................................................................... 1. H. anomala
2. Wings of column incurved or folded, not straight, not reaching apex of rostellar arms
 
...................................................................................................... 3
- Wings of column narrow, straight, widening into apical spathulate prolongation as long as rostellar arms, or longer
 
.......................................................................................... 2. H. alta
3. Hypochile with 5-6 slender papillae placed on each side of the sac
 
............................................................................... 3. H. oblongifolia
- Hypochile with 1-3 fat irregularly branching or flattened irregularly dented glands on each side of the sac
 
..................................................................................................... 4
4. Sepals 4-5 mm long; petals narrowly-obovate, hammer-shaped, very oblique, widening from narrow base into semicircular widening on upper edge faced to dorsal sepal
 
...................................................................................... 4. H. affinis
- Sepals 5-6 mm long; petals ovate to broadly-ovate, without semicircular widening, not oblique or slightly oblique
 
........................................................................................ 5. H. nitida

1. H. anomala (Lindl.) Reichenb. f. 1874, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 30: 142; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40. - Aetheria anomala Lindl. 1857, Journ. Linn. Soc. 1: 394. - H. grandiflora Ridl. 1923, Journ. Mal. Br. Roy. As. Soc. 1, 1: 98. - H. rotundiloba J.J. Smith, 1926, Svensk Bot. Tidsskr. 20: 470. - H. hainanensis T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1974, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1, 1: 34. - H. biloba (Ridl.) Seidenf. et Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen. Mal. Sing.: 95, fig. 38; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, l.c.: 40. - Zeuxine biloba Ridl. 1909, Journ. Fed. Mal. St. Mus. 4: 73.

Described from NE India ("Assam: Tangree"). Type ("Griffith s.n.") - K (holotype).

Terrestrial or lithophytic herb up to 35 cm tall, with 3-5 narrowly-ovate leaves 5-8 cm long. Scape to 20 cm long, shortly hairy. Rachis white hairy, to 7 cm long, with 4-20 flowers. Bracts ovate, 5-7 mm long, shorter than ovary, acuminate. Sepals oblong, 5-6 mm long, olive-brown with white and red apex, lateral sepals spreading. Petals lanceolate, 5 mm long, white with reddish-brown base, connivent to median sepal. Lip white with saccate greenish-pink base containing 2 short gland-like keels on each side, mesochile short, channeled with inrolled edges, epichile with 2 recurved broadly obovate lobes, each lobes 3-4.5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Column with short narrow wings and prominent rostellum arms. Fig. 34, m, n; 37, d.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 800-1300 m. Fl. January - April, August. Not rare (VU).

Distribution: Vietnam (Dac Lac, Hoa Binh, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, So La), NE India, Burma, Laos, S China, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Sulawesi.

Studied specimens. Dac Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., 1996, Vu Ngoc Long s.n. (LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, Phu Canh mt., HAL 396 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2287, DKH 6987 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6060 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Phong Nha - Ke Bang national park, HAL 6241 (HN, LE); So La, Yen Chau, DKH 7225 (HN, LE, MO).

2. H. alta Ridl. 1896, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32:404. Described from Malacca Peninsular ("Perak: Hermitage Hills, Kuala Kangsa Valley"). Type ("Ridley s.n.") - ?

Terrestrial herb up to 50 cm tall, at the base with 4-6 ovate to elliptic leaves 6-9 cm long distant on 2-3 cm; sheaths to 2 cm long. Scape to 20 cm long, shortly hairy, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, hairy, 5-7 mm long, shorter than ovary. Sepals yellow-pink, ovate, 5-6 mm long, hairy. Petals white, ovate of the same length, connivent to median sepal. Lip 4-5 mm long, at the base, with 2 close irregularly lobed papillae on each side, epichile in form of small slightly reflexed cordate tip less than 0.5 mm long. Column with tall spathulate wings equal or slightly exceeding rostellum arms. Fig. 34, o-q; 37, e.

Distribution: Vietnam (Thua Thien - Hue). Peninsular Thailand, Kalimantan.

Ecology. Wet closed primary and secondary forests on silicate soils. 300- 400 m. Fl. March - April. Very rare (DD).

Studied specimens. Thua Thien - Hue Prov. Nam Dong HAL 7156 (HN, LE).

3. H. oblongifolia (Blume) Blume, 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 102, tab. 32; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 32; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40. - Etaeria oblongifolia Blume, 1825, Bijdr. 6, fig. 14; id. 1825, ibid. 8: 410.

Described from Java ("Solassie Provinciae Tjanjor"). Type - L (BO, P)?

Terrestrial herb up to 40 cm tall, at the base with 4-7 shining narrowly-ovate leaves 4-6 cm long. Scape shortly hairy, to 16 cm long with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-cuneate, 3-5 mm long, shorter than ovary. Sepals light yellowish, ovate, 3-3.5 mm long, hairy. Petals white, oblique narrowly-obovate, 3-3.5 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 3-3.5 mm long, yellowish, with about 5- 6 slender papillae on each side, epichile brightly yellow, triangular, fat, finely papillose, apiculate. Column at front with strongly sigmoid, triangular-acute wings, shorter than rostellar arms. Fig. 35, a-c; 37, f.

 
Fig. 34. Goodyerafoliosa
 
Fig. 34. Goodyerafoliosa: a - flower, lip section and petals; G. schlechtendaliana: b - flower, lip section and petals; G. arisanensis: c - flowering plant, d - flattened tepals and lip section, side view; G. rhombodoides: e - flowering plant and leaf, f - flattened tepals, g - flattened lip and lip section, side view, h - column, dorsal and frontal views; Herpysma longicaulis: i - flowering plant, j - flattened sepals and flattened petals, k - lip, side view, l - column, frontal and half-side views; Hetaeria anomala: m - flower, n - flattened tepals, column and lip; H. alta: o - flattened tepals and column, p - lip, frontal view, q - column, side view.

Distribution: Vietnam (Vungtau - Condao), Andaman islands, Thailand, Malacca, Bonin, Ryukyu islands, Philippines, Indonesia, New Guinea, Australia, Pacific islands.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests on silicate soils. 200- 400 m. Fl. March - May. Locally common (VU).

Studied specimens. Vungtau - Condao, Con Dao, 1987, Averyanov 817, 840, 905 (HN, LE); 1989, Averyanov 502 (HN, LE).

4. H. affinis (Griff.) Seidenf. et Ormerod, 2001, Oasis, Suppl. 2: 9. - Goodyera affinis Griff. 1851, Not. Pl. Asiat. 3: 391; id. 1851, Ic. Pl. Asiat. 3, tab. 351B, fig. 7. - Cerochilus rubens Lindl. 1854, Gard. Chron. ser. 1: 87. - H. rubens (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 115; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 33; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 40.

Described from NE India ("Assam, n. Negrogam"). Type ("18-01-1836, Griffith in Assam Herb. no. 315") lost (Seidenf. & Ormerod, 2001, l.c.).

Terrestrial herb up to 45 cm tall, with 4-8 narrowly-ovate to ovate leaves 5- 10 cm long. Scape hairy, to 25 cm long, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, sparsely hairy, 4-7 mm long, shorter than ovary. Pedicel and ovary straight, densely adpressed to the rachis. Sepals greenish-pink, ovate, 4-5 mm long, sparsely hairy. Petals white, oblique narrowly-obovate, hammer-like, with a semicircular widening at upper edge faced to the dorsal sepal, 4-5 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 4-5 mm long, yellow, with 1-2 simple or irregular lobed fat papillae on each side; epichile in form of very small slightly reflexed conduplicate, cordate white tip. Column 1.5 mm tall, at front with small triangular inward turned wings near the apex, shorter than small triangular acute rostellar arms. Fig. 35, d, e; 37, g.

Distribution: Vietnam (Dak Nong, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien - Hue, Tuyen Quang), Bhutan, NE India, Burma, China, Thailand, Vietnam.

Studied specimens. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, Ta Dung mt., HLF 5608 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Con Cuong, Phu Pha May mt., HLF 3116 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6591 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, Henk van der Werff et al. 14209 (HN,LE, MO); Quang Tri, Da Krong Nature Reserve, HLF 6256, HN, LE, d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESEFLORA 0064/HLF6256; Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 10934 (HN,LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 220 (HN, LE).

5. H. nitida Ridl. 1896, Journ. Linn. Soc. Bot. 32: 404; Seidenf. Wood, 1992, Orch. Pen. Mal. Sing.: 95, fig. 37 g-i, pl. 2, d.

Described from Malacca Peninsular ("Pulau Butong, Penang"). Type ("Curtis s.n.") - SING (holotype).

Terrestrial herb up to up to 45 cm tall, with 5-7 narrowly-ovate to ovate leaves 7-10 cm long. Scape hairy, to 25 cm long, with many hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, hairy, 5-8 mm long, shorter than ovary. Pedicel and ovary straight, densely adpressed to the rachis. Sepals olive to pink, ovate, 5-6 mm long, hairy. Petals white, oblique ovate, broadly-ovate to broadly-obovate, 5-6 mm long, connivent to median sepal. Lip 5-5.5 mm long, yellow, with 2(3) irregular lobed fat papillae on each side; epichile triangular, conduplicate, with fat edges and shortly apiculate tip, brightly yellow. Column 1.5 mm tall, at front with small rectangular inward turned wings near the apex, shorter than small triangular acute rostellar arms. Fig. 35, f, g; 37, e, i.

Distribution: Vietnam (Ha Giang, Quang Tri), Thailand, Malaya, Singapore.

Ecology. Wet closed primary forests on rocky limestone. 150-1200 m. Fl. March - May. Rare (VU).

Studied specimens. Ha Giang, Quan Ba, Bat Dai Son mt., NTH 5420G (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Da Krong Nature Reserve, HLF 6255, HN, LE, d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0065/HLF 6255.

Ludisia A. Rich. 1825, in Bory de St.-Vincent, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 7: 437. Type : L. discolor (Ker-Gawl.) A. Rich. (Goodyera discolor Ker-Gawl.)

Lithophytic and occasionally epiphytic sympodial herb with fleshy succulent creeping rhizome and ascending short leafy stem with 2-6 petiolate leaves and terminal erect leafless inflorescence. Petiole and sheath 1-3 cm long; leaf blade ovate to broad-elliptic, 4-10 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, dark velvety green to almost black, with 1-7 yellow or pink longitudinal veins, occasionally reticulated with veins network. Scape 10-18 cm tall, with 2-3 pale pink, hyaline bracts. Rachis 2-14 cm long, hairy, with 1- 12 laxy flowers. Floral bracts cuneate, 1-1.5 cm long, a little shorter than ovary. Flowers resupinate, widely open, 1.2-1.7 cm across, white, with yellow anther. Sepals ovate, 10 mm long. Petals narrowly-ovate of same length, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip twisted, with short 2-lobed spur; spur inside with 2-lobed sessile gland on each side; lip blade 7-9 mm long, clawed, claw channeled, epichile 2-lobed, with spreading oblong lobes. Column twisted, stigma single on front of column. Fruit ellipsoid capsule, 1.5 cm long, 4-5 mm wide. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Fig. 35, h-k; 43, a-c.

Monotypic genus.

1. L. discolor (Ker-Gawl.) A. Rich. 1825, in Bory de St.-Vincent, Dict. Class. Hist. Nat. 7:437; Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 29; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 43. - Goodyera discolor Ker-Gаwl. 1818, Bot. Reg. 4, tab. 271. - Anoectochilus dawsonianus H. Low ex Reichenb. f. 1868, Gard. Chron. (1868): 1038. - Haemaria otletae Rolfe, 1891, Ill. Hort. 38: 31, tab. 524. - H. pauciflora Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80:349. - L. dawsoniana (H. Low ex Reichenb. f.) Aver. 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrad), 73, 3: 432. - L. otletae (Rolfe) Aver. 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrad), 73, 3: 432.

Described from S China ("from the Brasils" - sphalm., sec. Lindl., 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 490). Lectotype: Icon "Goodyera discolor" (Bot. Reg. 4, t. 271 - Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana 17, 4: 211).

Ecology. Broad-leaved forests and shrubs on any kind of rocks, usually along rocky river valleys. 50-1250 m. Fl. February - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces), Myanmar, S China, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malacca Peninsular, Sumatra.

Studied specimens. Dac Lac, 24 Dec. 1979, Bien 1167 (HN, LE); Dak Lac, Chu Yang Sinh mt., VH 5935 (HN), VH 6014 (HN); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, Bat Dai Son mt., NTH 5420D (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 1340 (HN), VA 12 (HN, MO), VA 429 (HN, MO), VA 858 (HN, NO); Kontum, Sa Thay, Chu Mom Ray, P-7906b (HN); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6570 (HN, LE), HLF 6720 (HN); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, 1971, Bao 471, CPNP 5148 (HN), NMC 706 (HN), NTH 4104 (HN), MVX 36 (HN), DDS 11761 (HN), HAL 1605 (HN), HAL 1655 (HN), sine date, Bao 471 (HN), sine date, MVX 172 (HN). Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, HLF 4015 (HN); Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt., HLF 4281 (HN, LE); Phu Khanh, Nha Trang, 11 June 1989, Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva 201 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6078 (HN, LE), HAL 6279 (HN), HAL 6350 (HN, LE), HAL 6351 (HN), d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0009/HAL6351; Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5865 (HN, LE), HAL 5926 (HN), HAL 5983 (HN); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, Ke Bang, VH 4771 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6310 (HN); Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 6217 (HN); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, HLF 5933 (HN, LE); Quangnam - Danang, Cu Lao Cham, 23 March 1987, Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva 541 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 1076 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Thach Thanh, HAL 2891 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7994 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 1669 (HN, LE), HLF 1818 (HN, LE), HLF 2695 (HN), HLF2696 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Huong Thuy, HAL 8111 (HN); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, 1988, Averyanov et al. LX-VN s.n. (LE), LX-VN 2383 (HN, LE);Vung tau - Con dao, Con Dao, 23 March 1989, Averyanov, Kudryavtzeva 307 (HN, LE).

Note. Very variable species, particularly on coloration of leaves. Widespread common orchid in lowland areas of Vietnam. It is widely collected for traditional oriental medicine and as ornamental plant for cultivation known under popular name "jewel orchids".

Macodes Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 496. Type: M. petola (Blume) Lindl. (Neottia petola Blume)

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few-to many-flowered raceme. Leaves few, spirally arranged at the base of stem, shortly petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, acute, bright green with fine network of yellow-golden nerves. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, not resupinate. Sepals free; petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip spurless, twisted, 3-lobed. Hypochile deeply saccate with 2 fat glands on lateral walls. Sidelobes triangular, acute. Epichile spathulate, with narrow stalk-like claw widening into more or less reflexed circular apex. Column short, twisted, on front with 2 thin close parallel rostellar arms descending downwards into saccate hypochile and 2 hemicircular wings. Anther acute. Stigma large, not divided.

10(1) species. Ryukyu Islands, Peninsular Malacca, Indonesia to Philippines, New Guinea and Vanuatu.

1. M. cupida Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 212.

Described from S Vietnam ("Dalat, cult. Hort. Bot. Parisiensis, 1959"). Type ("Tixier M-918") - P.

Rachis pubescent, laxy 4-5 flowered. Floral bracts ovate-elliptic, acute, pubescent, 9.5 -9 mm long, 4 mm wide. Pedicel and ovary pubescent, to 12 mm long. Flowers glabrous, not resupinate. Sepals narrowly-ovate, acute, 8 mm long, 4 mm wide; lateral sepals recurved, oblique. Petals oblique narrowly-ovate, 8 mm long, 3 mm wide. Lip 3-lobed, 8.5 long, 5 mm wide. Hypochile subquadrate, saccate, sidelobes broadly rounded, with the apical quarter membranaceous; inside along median vein hypochile with a low fleshy keel terminating apically in an arrow shape about 4 mm long, 5 mm wide; hypochile glands terete with an enlarged apex. Claw linear, 4 mm long. Epichile cordate, acute, 1.5 mm long, 2 mm wide. Column erect, 6.5 mm tall. Anther basally ovoid, long rostrate, 5 mm long. Rostellar arms linear, 4 mm long. Stigma ventral, at the base of rostellum. Column wings subquadrate, ventral, 1 mm across. Fig. 35, l-n.

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong?).

Note. Insufficiently known species described on the base of fragment of inflorescence collected from alone cultivated specimen, origin of which needs verification. It may be related to widely cultivated M. petola, from which differs in broader narrowly-ovate petals and twice longer anther and rostellum.

Myrmechis Blume, 1859, Coll. Orchid.: 76 Type: M. gracilis (Blume) Blume (Anoectochilus gracilis Blume)

Very small terrestrial, lithophytic or occasionally epiphytic sympodial herbs with creeping slender rhizome, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and 1-2(3) terminal flowers. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, uniformly green, distant or crowded near apex. Scape short, with 1-3 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, hardly opening. Sepals free, subsimilar, lateral concave, oblique. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip connate to the base of the column, long-clawed. Hypochile concave, with short, thick, paired warts on lateral sides. Mesochile prominent, narrow, with incurved margin. Epichile recurved, broad, 2-lobed. Column short, erect, with short erect rostellum and 2 small conical wings at front. Anther broadly-ovate. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigmas 2 on short lateral projections.

15(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia.

1. M. pumila (Hook. f.) T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 69. - Odontochilus pumilus Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. India, 6: 99. - Zeuxine langbianensis N.T. Tich, 2001, Orch. Vietnam, 1: 214.

Described from NE India ("India, Sikkim: alt. 8.000-10.000 ft"). Type ("J.D. Hooker 325A") - K.

Terrestrial herb 6-10 cm tall. Leaves shortly petiolate, broadly-ovate to almost circular, to 1 cm long and wide, uniform green. Scape 2.5-3 cm long, with 1-2 flowers. Floral bracts ovate to broadly-ovate, 4.5 mm long, 3.8 mm wide, ciliate along margin. Sepals sub-similar, ovate 6 mm long, obtuse. Petals oblique narrowly-ovate, suddenly narrowed near the apex, pyriform, 5.8 mm long, 2.2 mm wide. Lip 5.6 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 1 prominent midvein and 1 bilobed gland on each lateral vein. Epichile 2-lobed, with spreading oblique obovate lobes. Column short, with small horn-like frontal wings. Fig. 35, o-r.

 
Fig. 35. Hetaeria oblongifolia
 
Fig. 35. Hetaeria oblongifolia: a - flattened tepals and lip, b - column and lip, side view, c - column, frontal view; H. affinis: d - flattened tepals and lip, e - column, frontal view; H. nitida: f - flattened tepals and lip, g - column, frontal view and section of spur base. Ludisia discolor: h - flowering plant, i - flattened tepals and lip, j - flower, k - column, side view and lip;Macodes cupida: l - flattened sepals and petal, m - flattened lip, n - column, side view; Myrmechis pumila: o - flowering plant, p - flattened sepals, petal and lip, q - column and lip, side view, r - floral bract.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved closed mossy forests on silicate soils. 2100-2150 m. Fl. July. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong), Bhutan, Nepal, NE India, Myanmar, S China, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Kon Tum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 627a (specimen lost); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Langbian mt., T.20.07.94b (icon "Zeuxine langbianensis" N.T. Tich, 2001, l.c.: 215).

Odontochilus Blume, 1859, Coll. Orchid.: 79. - Evrardia Gagnep. 1932, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 2 ser. 4, 5: 596. - Pristiglottis Cretz. et J.J. Smith, 1934, Acta Fauna Fl. Universali, ser. 2, Bot. 1, 14: 4. - Evrardianthe Rauschert, 1983, Feddes Repert. 94: 433. - Evrardiana Aver. 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrad) 73, 3: 432. Lectotype: O. flavescens (Blume) Blume (Anoectochilus flavescens Blume)

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal lax, few-to many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals very oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading, concave, enclosing saccate base of lip. Lip adnate to column base. Hypochile concave to saccate to globose, with 2 fleshy branched papillae on lateral sides, rare without glands. Mesochile channeled, long to shortly fimbriate-toothed. Epichile with 2 divergent flabellate spreading lobes. Column short, fleshy, winged or keeled, with 2 rostellar arms. Anther triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium. Stigma ventral, 1 or 2.

40(9) species. Tropical mainland Asia, Indonesia, NewGuinea, Pacific Islands to Polynesia and adjacent islands.

 
Key to species

1. Plants achlorophyllous, yellowish to pink-brown, all leaves reduced into small yellowish bracts
 
.................................................................................................... 2
- Plants with normally developed green or purple-brown leaves
 
.................................................................................................... 3
2. Flowers not resupinate, yellow to red-orange; lip 12-15 mm long; epichile lobes lacinate
 
................................................................................... 1. O. poilanei
- Flowers resupinate, with brown sepals and white lip; lip 9-10 mm long; epichile lobes with entire margin
 
.......................................................................... 2. O. saprophyticus
3. Leaves purple-brown to black-violet; scape with 1-2(3) not resupinate flowers; mesochile with purple-brown flanges
 
.................................................................................... 3. O. elwesii
- Leaves green; scape normally more than with 3 resupinate flowers; lip pure white or yellow
 
.................................................................................................... 4
4. Lip at the base straight, not concave or hardly concave, without any warts or glands inside
 
..............................................................................4. O. acalcaratus
- Lip at the base distinctly concave to saccate, with distinct lateral warts or glands inside
 
.................................................................................................... 5
5. Ovary glabrous; column with 2 stigmas
 
.................................................................................................... 6
- Ovary tomentose or hairy; column with1 stigma
 
.................................................................................................... 7
6. Lip white, with convergent semi-circular to broadly-obovate lobes, slightly erose along margin, 8-9 mm long; spike few-flowered, 2-4 cm long; hypochile glands more or less straight, not uncinnate
 
.............................................................................. 5. O. brevistylus
- Lip yellow, with rather triangular-flabellate lobes, divided by broad sinus, entire along margin, 9-12 mm long; spike many-flowered, 4-12 cm long; hypochile glands uncinnate
 
............................................................................. 6. O. lanceolatus
7. Ovary and sepals densely hairy; lip 10-12 mm long; flanges of mesochile entire or with few low insignificant teeth; lateral sepals not spreading, about 8 mm long; epichile lobes 6 mm long
 
............................................................................... 7. O. umbrosus
- Ovary and sepals sparsely short hairy; lip 16-20 mm long; flanges of mesochile with 3-5 long fringes; lateral sepals, 8-10 mm long; epichile lobes 8-12 mm long
 
................................................................................................... 8
8. Sepals and petals uniform greenish, with 1-3 longitudinal veins, without distinct pinnate venation from midvein
 
......................................................................................... 8. O. tortus
- Sepals and petals brownish to brownish-pink, with unclear whitish pinnate tessellation and distinct pinnate venation from mid-vein
 
......................................................................................... 9. O. inabai

 
Fig. 36. Cheirostylis latipetala
 
Fig. 36. Cheirostylis latipetala: a (HAL 8526 and DKH 7659c, type); C. spathulata: b (Thailand, s. coll.); Erythrodes hirsuta: c (HAL 2266 and HLF 5755); E. blumei: d (Vietnam, s. loc.); Goodyera procera: e (HAL 6924 and HLF 5756); G. fumata: f (LX-VN 1811); G. hispida: g (HAL 9385); G. biflora: h (HAL 11135); G. viridiflora: i (DKH 7400 and HAL 6057).
Fig. 37. Goodyerafoliosa
 
Fig. 37. Goodyerafoliosa: a (HAL 3967 and HAL 10027); G. schlechtendaliana: b (HLF 5257), c (HAL 8404); Hetaeria anomala: d (HAL 6241); H. alta: e (HAL 7156); Hetaeria oblongifolia: f (Averyanov 817, 1987); H. affinis: g (HLF 6591); H. nitida: h (HLF 6255 and NTH 5420G), i (HLF 6255).

1. O. poilanei (Gagnep.) Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. - Evrardia poilanei Gagnep. 1932, Bull. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Paris) 2, ser. 4, 5: 596. - Hetaeria poilanei (Gagnep.) T. Tang et F.T. Wang, 1951, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 71. - Evrardianthe poilanei (Gagnep.) Rаuschert, 1983, Feddes Repert. 94: 433; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 34; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 46. - Evrardianаpoilanei (Gagnep.)Aver.1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrаd) 73, 3: 432. - Chamaegastrodia poilanei (Gagnep.) Seidenf. et A.N. Rao, 1994, Nord. Journ. Bot. 14: 297; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 20.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Annam, Dаlаt"). Type ("Evrаrd, 1807")- P.

Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless herb up to 20 cm tall. Stem yellowish, glabrous, with many yellowish, broad, obtuse bracts and terminal lax spike with 2-10 flowers. Rachis shortly pubescent. Floral bracts ovate, acute, 8-10 mm long, glabrous, ciliate along margin. Ovary shortly hairy, 8-10 mm long. Flowers not resupinate, orange. Sepals shortly hairy at the base; median sepal ovate 4-6 mm long; lateral sepals oblique-oblong, 8-10 mm long. Petals, lanceolate, oblique, obtuse, as long as median sepal. Lip 12-18 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 2 small simple warts. Mesochile narrow, with pectinate irregular toothed, finely papillose flanges. Epichile lobes spreading, triangular-flabellate, 6-9 mm long, 5-7 mm wide, irregular toothed or laciniate, with prominently elongated 2 adaxial lobules. Column stalked, 2-3 mm tall, with 1 U- shaped stigma, 2 long rostellar arms and 2 large parallel wings at front below stigma. Anther ovate, acute, 1.6-2 mm long. Fig. 38, a-c.

Ecology. Primary and secondary humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils. 1500-1600 m. Fl. October - November. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum, Lam Dong), Myanmar, Thailand, Japan, S China.

Studied specimens. Kontum, mt. Mamray, Poilane 18204 (P); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, WP 1212B (HN, LE).

2. O. saprophyticus (Aver.) Ormerod, 2003, Taiwania, 48, 3: 141. - Pristiglottis saprophytica Aver. 2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54, 90, fig. 9.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Lam Dong Prov., Lac Duong Distr.,... Nui Gia Rich ridge..."). Type ("VH 3977a") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Terrestrial achlorophyllous leafless herb up to 22 cm tall. Rhizome rootless, densely covered with root hairs. Stem pink-brown, glabrous, with many hyaline acuminate bracts and terminal lax spike with 3-15 flowers. Rachis pubescent to 10 cm long. Floral bracts elliptic, acuminate hairy, 6-10 mm long. Ovary pubescent, 7-9 mm long. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, sparsely hairy, pink-brown to olive-brown, 5-6 mm long; lateral sepals slightly oblique, spreading. Petals white, lanceolate, obtuse, as long as sepals. Lip white, 9-10 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 2 large simple glands. Mesochile narrow, 4-5 mm long, with numerous warts and papillae on flanges. Epichile lobes spreading, sub-quadrate to hemi-circular, 4-4.5 mm long, 3.5-4 mm wide. Column narrowing to the base, 3.5-4 mm tall, with 1 large circular stigma, 2 long rostellar arms and 2 parallel hemicircular wings at front. Anther narrowly-ovate, acute, 2-2.5 mm long. Fig. 38, d-h; 43, d.

Ecology. Primary humid broad-leaved forests on silicate soils, commonly on rich soils along shady stream slopes. 450-1500 m. Fl. April - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong, Thua Thien -Hue).

Studied specimens. Thua Thien - Hue, Huong Thuy, HAL 8194 (HN, LE); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0018/HAL 8194.

3. O. elwesii C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 100. - Anoectochilus elwesii (C.B. Clarke ex Hook. f.) King et Pantl. 1898, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta), 8: 297; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114:31; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 44; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - A. daoensis Gagnep. 1951, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2 ser. 22, 5: 632; Seidenf. 1992, l.c.: 30; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 44.

Described from NE India ("Darjeeling, Rishap; Khasia Hills, Shillong; Munipore, Kohima, Naga Hills"). Syntypes ("Clarke 12251; Clarke 44609; Prain 17") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 20 cm tall with 2-5 petiolate leaves at the base. Leaves ovate, acute, purple-brown to black-violet, 1.5-4.5 cm long. Scape to 15 cm long, hairy, with 1-3 acute, hyaline bracts and 1-2(3) lax not resupinate flowers. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, hairy, to 12 mm long. Ovary 10-15 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals olive to brown-green, long hairy, with acute, strongly recurved apex; median sepal ovate, 9-11 mm long, with light pinkish apex; lateral sepals oblique-ovate, 10-12 mm long, with, concave, hemi-spherical base, embracing lip base. Petals white, hemi-circular, strongly oblique, broad at the middle, attenuate toward the apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 1.6-2.5 cm long, basally globular, bifid, with 2 prominent conical glands. Mesochile pectinate with 4-6 purple-brown fringes. Epichile lobes triangular-flabellate, irregular-undulate along margin, 1-1.5 cm long, 6-8 mm wide, divided by a broad sinus. Column twisted, 2-3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas and 2 appendages at the base. Anther beaked. Fig. 38, i-o; 43, e.

Ecology. Primary and secondary wet broad-leaved forests, often with bamboo on any kind of soils. 300-1200 m. Fl. May - July. Not common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Lai Chau, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, Thanh Hoa, Tuyen Quang, Vinh Phuc), Bhutan, Nepal, NE India, Myanmar, Thailand, S China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be, HLF 612 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HAL 4791 (HN, LE); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 8835 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2003 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5957 (HN, LE); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3372 (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 1720 (HN, LE); Vinh Phu, Tam Dao, 23 Jan. 1988, Averyanov et al. LX-VN s.n. (LE), P-7452 (HN, LE).

4. O. acalcaratus (Aver.) Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. - Anoectochilus acalcaratus Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg), 81, 10: 73, fig. 1; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Prov. Kontum... N slope of Ngoc Linh mountain..."). Type ("VH 627") - LE (holotype), AAU, HN, MO, P (isotypes).

Terrestrial herb up to 20 cm tall with 3-5 dark velvety green leaves at the base. Leaves shortly petiolate, narrowly-ovate to ovate, 3.5-7 cm long, usually finely undulate along margin. Scape 3-6 cm tall with 2-3 small sessile leaves. Rachis hairy 2-5 cm long with 4-8 lax flowers. Floral bracts hairy, 8-10 mm long, longer than ovary. Sepals sub-similar, light green, elliptic, sparsely hairy, 8-10 mm long 3-4 mm wide. Petals white, lanceolate, 6 mm long. Lip white, little longer than sepals, at the base straight, not concave, without glands, with longitudinal low keel. Mesochile narrow, straight, 5 mm long, with 3-5 small teeth. Lobes of epichile spreading, hemicircular, 4-4.5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide. Column 3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas. Fig. 38, p-t.

Ecology. Primary evergreen mossy forests on silicate soils, commonly along shady wet streams canyons. 2100-2450 m. Fl. June - July. Locally common (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Kon Tum).

Studied specimens. Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH 539 (HN, LE).

5. O. brevistylus Hook. f. 1890, Fl. Brit. Ind. 6: 100. - Anoectochilus brevi-stylus (Hook. f.) Ridl. 1907, Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins. 1: 214; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 31; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 43; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 10. - Anoectochilus tonkinensis Gagnep. 1931, Bull. Mus. Paris 2, ser. 3, 7: 679.

Described from Malacca Peninsula ("Perak, on Gunong Batu Pateh, alt. 3400 ft."). Type ("Wray s.n.") - K?

 
Fig. 38. Odontochilus poilanei
 
Fig. 38. Odontochilus poilanei: a - flowering plant, b - flattened tepals and lip, c - column, side view; O. saprophyticus: d - flowering plant, e - flattened tepals and lip, f - fragment of mesochile, g - column, side view, h - pollinarium; O. elwesii: i - inflorescence, j - flower and flower without lateral sepals and epichile, k - section of spur and hypochile, l - flattened lip, m - section of spur base, n - column, frontal view, o - pollinarium; O.acalcaratus: p - flowering plant, q - flower and fragment of inflorescence, r - flower without lateral sepal and column with lip, side view, s - flattened tepals and lip, t - column, ventral and dorsal views.

Herb to 30 cm tall with 5-6 distant pure green petiolate leaves. Leaves narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 4.5-7 cm long. Scape short, 2-4 cm long, with lax spike 2-4 cm long of 6-10 flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, to 10 mm long, a little shorter than ovary. Ovary glabrous. Sepals sub-similar, ovate, 7-8 mm long, green, sparsely hairy; lateral sepals swollen at the base, enclosing base of lip. Petals, strongly oblique, falcate with attenuate apex, as long as median sepal. Lip white, 10- 14 mm long, basally shortly globular, bifid, with prominent longitudinal ridge and flat quadrangular gland on each side. Mesochile 7-8 mm long, laterally with 3-4 long fringes. Epichile lobes 8-9 mm long, 5-6 mm wide, semi-circular to broadly-obovate, slightly irregularly toothed, divided by broad sinus. Column short, 2.5-3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas, short rostellar arms and 2 small insignificant wings at the base. Fig. 39, a, b.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved forests. 1400-1600 m. Fl.? Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lao Cai), Thailand, S China, Taiwan, Malacca Peninsula.

Studied specimens. Chapa, Tonkin, Petelot s.n. (P).

6. O. lanceolatus (Lindl.) Blume, 1859, Coll. Orchid.: 80. - Anoectochilus lanceolatus Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 499; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 30; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 43; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from NE India ("Assam; Khasia, Mishmee Hills"). Syntypes (Mack s.n.; Griffith s.n.)- K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 35 cm tall with 5-7 distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, 4-10 cm long. Scape short, 5-6 cm long, pubescent with lax many flowered spike 4-10 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate acuminate, 8-15 mm long. Ovary 8-10 mm long, glabrous. Sepals and petals pale green; median sepal ovate, acute, 5-7 mm long; lateral sepals ovate-oblong, oblique, spreading, 7-8 mm long. Petals strongly oblique, hemi-circular with attenuate apex, 5-7 mm long, 2-2.5 mm wide. Lip yellow, 16-18 mm long, basally shortly globular, bifid, with 2 slender uncinnate glands. Mesochile 6-8 mm long, laterally with 5-7 rair fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, triangular-flabellate, 8-10 mm long, 4-6 mm wide. Column stout, 2-3 mm tall, with 2 stigmas, large elongate, bifid rostellum and 2 prominent vertical parallel wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, beaked, 2.5-3 mm long. Fruit erect fusiform capsule 1-1.2 cm long. Fig. 39, c-e.

Ecology. Primary humid broad-leaved forests, usually along shady stream canyons on any kind of soils. 1200-1300 m. Fl. August - September. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Giang, Ha Noi, Lao Cai), Bhutan, Nepal, NE India, S China, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Bavi mt., Balansa 2005 (P); Chapa, Petelot 5194 (P); Ha Giang, Vi Xuyen, DKH 5316 (HN,LE,MO).

7. O. umbrosus (Aver.) Ormerod, 2002, Lindleyana, 17, 4: 225. - Pristiglottis umbrosa Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg) 81, 10:78, fig. 3; Aver. etAveryanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Kontum Prov., Dak Gley Distr.,..."). Type (VH 1932) - LE (holotype), HN, MO (isotypes).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 25 cm tall with 5-7 more or less distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, dark green, sometimes finely undulate along margin, to 8 cm long, 3.5 cm wide. Scape 5-7 cm long, usually with 1 rudimentary leaf. Rachis pubescent, 3-8 cm long, with 8-14 lax flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, 8-10 mm long, not longer than ovary. Ovary 10-12 mm long, densely pubescent. Sepals brown to brown-green, sparsely pubescent; median sepal ovate, acute, 6-7 mm long; lateral sepals ovate, oblique, 8 mm long. Petals white, strongly oblique, with broad base and attenuate apex, 6 mm long, 3 mm wide at the base. Lip white, 10-12 mm long, basally shortly globular, bilobulate, with 2-3 close glands on each side. Mesochile 6 mm long, laterally with 4-5 short fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, ovate, 6 mm long, 4 mm wide. Column twisted, about 1 mm long, with 1 stigma and 2 small vertical wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, brightly red, 4 mm long. Fig. 39, f-k; 43, f.

Ecology. Primary humid broad-leaved forests, usually along shady stream canyons on silicate soils. 1000-1500 m. Fl. October - January. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Dak Nong, Kon Tum).

Studied specimens. Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5611a (HN, LE).

8. O. tortus King et Pantl., 1896, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, 2, Nat. Hist. 65: 125. - Anoectochilus tortus (King et Pantl.) King et Pantl. 1898, Ann. Roy. Bot. Gard. (Calcutta) 8: 298, tab. 396. - Pristiglottis torta (King et Pantl.) Aver. 1996, Bot. Journ. (St. Petersburg) 81, 10: 78. - A. repens auct. non (Downie) Seidenf. et Smitinand: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11.

Described from northern India ("Darjeeling (Duars) Kumai"). Type (Pantling 354) - CAL (holotype), BM, K (isotypes).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb to 30 cm tall with 4-7 distant petiolate leaves. Leaves ovate, uniform green, 4-7 cm long. Scape short, 4-5 cm long, pubescent with lax many flowered spike 4-10 cm long. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, finely pubescent, 8-12 mm long. Ovary hairy, 8-12 mm long. Sepals and petals greenish. Sepals sparsely long hairy; median sepal ovate, acute, 5-8 mm long; lateral sepals ovate-oblong, oblique, spreading, 7-10 mm long. Petals strongly oblique, falcate with attenuate apex, as long as median sepal. Lip pure white, 12-16 mm long, basally shortly globular, with 2 thick close massive straight conical glands on each side. Mesochile 5-7 mm long, laterally with 5-7 pair long fringes. Epichile lobes spreading, hemi-circular to broadly-obovate, 4-7 mm long and wide. Column stout, 2.5-3.5 mm tall, with 1 semi-circular stigma, conical rostellar arms and 2 small vertical wings at the base. Anther narrowly-ovate, beaked, 2.5-3 mm long. Fig. 39, l-n.

Ecology. Closed humid broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone in shady, wet places. 400-950 m. Fl. June - August. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Binh). Bhutan, N India, S China, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, HAL 1670 (HN, LE).

 
Fig. 39. Odontochilus brevistylus
 
Fig. 39. Odontochilus brevistylus: a - flower, b - section of spur base; O. lanceolatus: c - flower, d - section of spur base, e - column, side view; O. umbrosus: f - flowering plant, g - flower, h - flattened tepals and lip, i - anther and base of spur, view from above, j - base of lip, view from below, k - column, half-side and frontal views; O. tortus: l - flattened tepals, m - flattened lip and column, side view, n - section ob spur base; O. inabai: o - flower.

9. O. inabai (Hayata) T.P. Lin, 1975, Nat. Orch. Taiwan: 216. - Anoectochilus inabai Hayata, 1914, Icon. Pl. Formos. 4: 102, pl. 14.

Described from Taiwan ("Rinkiho, ad 5000 ped. alt."). Type (H. Inaba, Aug. 1911) - TI?

On its vegetative features this species resembles O. tortus, but differs in slightly larger flowers, as well as brownish to brownish-pink sepals and petals, with irregular pinnate whitish tessellation and pinnate venation. Fig, 39, o; 43, g.

Ecology. Closed humid broad-leaved forests on rocky limestone. 900-1000 m. Fl. June - August. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Hoa Binh), Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 9002 (HN).

Orchipedum Breda, Kuhl et Hasselt, 1827, Gen. Sp. Orch. Asclep.: tab. 10. Type: O. plantaginifolium Breda

Terrestrial sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green. Scape leafless, with 2-4 large sterile bracts. Flowers, sessile, resupinate. Sepals free. Petals oblique-obovate, joined in apical part and connivent to median sepal forming hood; lateral sepals spreading, with concave base, enclosing saccate base of lip. Lip adnate to column base, spurred, 3-lobed. Spur globose, slightly bifid, curved forwards under the blade, containing dense group of fleshy hairs on each side. Base of lip with erect rounded side lobes embracing column base, inside with 2 erect semi-circular parallel keels. Median lobe with narrow clawed base suddenly broadening into spreading lobules. Column narrow, bended, with 1 stigma and narrow winged rostellar arms; anther narrowly ovate acute. Pollinium sectile, very long, to 5 mm long, with stipe and viscidium.

3(1) species. Vietnam, Malacca Peninsular, Java, Sumatra, Philippines.

O. echinatum Aver. et Averyanova, 2006, Komarovia, 4: 29, fig. 13.

Described from southern Vietnam ("Thua Thien Hue Prov., Phu Loc Distr., Bach Ma national park, S slope of Bach Ma mt., below Hai Vong Dai peak"). Type ("HLF 1296") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Stem 20-25 cm tall, with 4-6 uniformly green petiolate leaves, 8-13 cm long, 2.5-4 cm wide. Scape 6-9 cm long, with 2-4 yellowish, broad, acuminate bracts 3-1.5 cm long; scape, rachis, floral bracts, ovary and sepals glandular hairy. Rachis 7- 9 cm long with numerous sessile, odorless flowers, 1.8-2 cm across. Floral bracts lanceolate, 11-18 mm long. Sepals greenish to olive-pink, sub-similar, ovate, 10-12 mm long; median sepal hooded, forward directed; lateral oblique at the base, spreading. Petals thin, hyaline, white, oblique-obovate, 9-10 mm long, connate in the apical third. Lip 9-10 mm long, white. Spur globular, 3-3.5 mm across, inside on each side with very large gland densely covered with numerous long thick papillae. Base of lip with erect semi-circular crisped side lobes and 2 semi-circular erect parallel keels. Mesochile irregularly grooved on sides, narrowing toward epichile. Epichile lobes spreading, flat, rectangular to obovate, 1.5-3 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, irregularly serrate along margin. Column simple, narrow, 9-10 mm long, bent forward at the middle, with narrowly-ovate stigma at front. Anther and pollinarium 6 mm long. Fig. 40, a-g; 43, h.

Ecology. Coniferous, mixed and broad-leaved evergreen forests on shale and sandstone, commonly along shady streams. 1000-1100 m. Fl. April - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Thua Thien - Hue).

Note. Species is known up to now only by alone type collection.

Rhomboda Lindl. 1857, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 181. Type: Rhomboda longifolia Lindl.

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few-to many-flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged in basal part of stem, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, velvety dark green, brown-green to nearly black, often with white or pink longitudinal median stripe. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile yellowish bracts. Flowers sessile, resupinate or not. Sepals free. Petals oblique, connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip adnate to column base, broadly saccate at the base. Hypochile with 2 short large peltate glands on lateral sides, rounded side lobes and 2 prominent lamellate, closely parallel keels, sometimes with a low keel on flanges. Mesochile channeled, clawed, usually very short. Epichile entire to 2-lobed. Column clavate, with 2 wings at front, 2 lateral stigmas and slender rostellum. Anther ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with stipe and viscidium.

22(3) species. Bhutan, Nepal, NE India, S China, Myanmar, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea, Solomon Islands, NE Australia.

 
Key to species

1. Flowers more than 5 mm across; lip 9-12 mm long; sepals darkpurple-brown
 
...................................................................................... 1. R. petelotii
- Flowers less than 5 mm across; lip less than 5 mm long; sepals pale brown or greenish
 
..................................................................................................... 2
2. Epichile entire, broadly-ovate to circular; ovaries erect, densely adpressed to the rachis
 
....................................................................................... 2. R. tokioi
- Epichile 2-lobed, with spreading acute lobes; ovaries spreading, not adpressed to the rachis
 
................................................................................ 3. R. lanceolata

1. R. petelotii (Gagnep.) Ormerod, 1998, Austral. Orchid Rev. 63: 11; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11. - Haemaria petelotii Gagnep. 1933, Bull. Soc. Bot. France, 80: 349. - Anoectochilus petelotii (Gagnep.) Seidenf. 1975, Contr. Revis. Orch. Fl. Cambodia. Laos Vietnam: 7. - Ludisia discolor auct. non (Ker Gawl.) A. Rich.: Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 29, p. p.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Tonkin: Cha-pa, 1.500-1.600 m."). Type ("Petelot 5166") - P (holotype), C (isotype).

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb 20-35 cm tall with 3-5 petiolate leaves in basal rosette. Leaves ovate, 4-7 cm long, acute velvety dark green, purple-brown to nearly black, with 1 (rarely 3) white to light pink longitudinal stripes. Scape 7-12 cm tall, shortly pubescent, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate, yellowish bracts. Rachis 6-15 cm long, with many not resupinate flowers. Ovary glabrous, 10-15 mm long. Floral bracts sparsely pubescent at the base, ciliate along margin, narrowly-ovate, acuminate, as long as, or slightly shorter than ovary. Sepals purple-brown, free, sparsely pubescent at the base; median sepal narrowly ovate, acute, 7-9 mm long, with recurved apex; lateral sepals oblique-ovate, narrowing to the apex, 8-10 mm long. Petals brown, narrowly-ovate, oblique, falcate, acuminate, as long as median sepal. Lip 9-10 mm long. Hypochile purple to purple-brown, saccate, 5-6 mm long, 4-5 mm wide, with 2 roundish, erect side lobes, 2 large stalked hemi-circular gland at the base, 1 short tall triangular lamellate keel along midrib and lamellate, finely serrulate lateral longitudinal flanges outside. Epichile joined to hypochile with a short claw, sometimes twisted on 180°. Epichile lobes circular, spreading, irregular wavy, 5-6 mm across. Column conical, 4-5 mm tall, with 2 large broad, triangular wavy wings at front, acute bifid rostellum and 2 lateral stigmas touching at front. Anther acuminate at the apex. Fruits ellipsoid capsule, 12-15 mm long, 3-5.5 mm wide. Fig. 40, h-l; 43, i.

Ecology. Humid forests on rich soils, mainly on rocky limestone. 700-2000 m. Fl. July - August (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Cao Bang, Ha Giang, Hoa Binh, Kon Tum, Lai Chau, Lam Dong, Lao Cai, Quang Binh, Son La, Thanh Hoa, Thua Thien - Hue).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 514 (HN, LE), HLF 552 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Cho Don, HLF 761 (HN, LE), HLF 804 (HN), HAL 4790 (HN, LE); Bac Kan, Na Ri, HAL4924 (HN); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 312 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tra Linh, CBL983 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Trung Khanh, HAL 5561 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6577 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Meo Vac, NTH 3442 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, NTH 3603 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, NTH 3459 (HN, LE), NTH 3459 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL467/a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Mai Chau, HAL 641 (HN, LE), HAL 690 (HN, LE), DKH 7716 (H, LE, MO), DKH 7921 (HN, LE, MO); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 1850 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, VH 5439 (HN); Lai Chau, Sin Ho, HAL 9962 (HN), HAL 10050 (HN); Lai Chau, Tam Duong, HAL 10254 (HN); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Hon Giao ridge, VH 4132(HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2013 (HN, LE), HAL 2316 (HN), HAL 2656 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6059 (HN, LE), HAL 6141 (HN, LE photo); Son La, Moc Chau, DK H7322 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 7357 (HN, LE, MO), DKH 7452a (HN, LE, MO), DKH 7453 (HN, LE, MO); Son La, Moc Chau, HAL 9304 (HN); Son La, Thuan Chau, HAL 9632 (HN); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7204 (HN, LE, MO), HAL 9435 (HN); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3495 (HN, LE); ThuaThien -Hue, A Luoi, HAL 7682 (HN), HAL 7683 (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Bach Ma national park, HLF 943 (HN, LE), HLF 1002 (HN, LE).

Note. Taxonomically very isolated species, which differs in touching stigma lobes, serrulate lamellate flanges of mesochile, large alone median keel on the lip disc and usually twisted claw. The plant is not rare in limestone areas of northern Vietnam and may be certainly found in allied limestone regions of Laos and China.

2. R. tokioi (Fukuyama) Ormerod, 1998, Austral. Orchid Rev. 63, 4: 11. - Hetaeria tokioi Fukuyama, 1934, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 48: 434. - H. pauciflora auct. non Ridl.: Seidenf. 1992, Orch. Indochina: 39; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 33. - Rhomboda pauciflora auct. non (Ridl.) Ormerod: Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 54.

Described from Taiwan ("Taiwan - Taikohu Praef., near Urai"). Type (09- 1932, Suzuki-Tokio 4128) - TI?

Terrestrial herb 8-17 cm tall. Leaves shortly petiolate, 2-4, in basal rosette, narrowly-ovate to ovate, acute, 2-6 cm long, velvety green with indistinct median whitish stripe. Scape shortly tomentose, 4-7 cm tall, with 2-3 cuneate, acuminate bracts. Rachis 2.5-7 cm long, with numerous lax hardly opening flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acute, sparsely hairy and ciliate along margin, 5-10 mm long. Ovary erect, adpressed to the rachis, glabrous, longer than floral bracts. Sepals greenish-brown, similar, ovate, 3.5-4.5 mm long, obtuse, glabrous. Petals white, oblanceolate, blunt at the apex, as long as sepals. Lip white, ovate, concave, as long as sepals. Hypochile with 2 stalked, warty glands at the base and 2 short semi-circular keels inside. Epichile ovate to sub-circular, 0.8 mm across. Column conical, 2.5-3 mm tall, with 2 parallel keels at front and narrow bifid acute rostellum. Anther narrowly ovate, acuminate. Fig. 40, m, n; 44, a.

Ecology. Humid broad-leaved lowland forests on silicate soils. 400-450 m. Fl. May - June. Rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh), Japan, SE China, Hainan, Taiwan.

Studied specimens. Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5216 (LE); Vietnam, sine loc., 1985, Averyanov et al. LX-VN s.n. (LE). Note. Available specimens from Vietnam differ in glabrous ovary and sepals and may be present separate variety.

3. R. lanceolata (Lindl.) Ormerod, 1995, Orchadian, 11: 329 - Dossinia lanceolata Lindl. 1857, Journ. Proc. Linn. Soc. Bot. 1: 186. - Anoectochilus pomrangianus Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 41; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 11; N.T. Tich, 2001, Orch. Viet Nam: 178.

Described from NE India ("India, Khasia, Pomrang"). Type (Hooker & Thomson s.n.)- K.

Herb 10-25 cm tall with glabrous stem. Leaves 3-4, distant on 1.5 -2 cm, petiolate, lanceolate, acute, 3-6 cm long. Scape 7-8 cm tall, with 2-3 lanceolate, acute sterile bracts and 10-14 lax flowers. Rachis 5-6 cm long. Floral bracts lanceolate, ciliate along margin, 3-9 mm long. Ovary twisted, 6-9 mm long. Flowers sub-globose, about 3 mm across. Sepals similar, pale brown, ovate, acute, 3.5-4.5 mm long. Petals white, oblique-ovate, obtuse, about 4 mm long. Lip white with pale yellowish base, longer than sepals, saccate at the base, 4-4.5 mm long, 3 mm wide; sac with 2 lamellate keels along midrib and large callus on each side; apex decurved, 2-lobe, with central apiculus; epichile lobes oblique-ovate. Column 2-3 mm tall. Pollinia clavate, 2 mm long. Fig. 41, a.

 
Fig. 40. Orchipedum echinatum
 
Fig. 40. Orchipedum echinatum: a - flowering plant, b - flower, c - flattened tepals, d - lip, side view and lip longitudinal section, e - spur cross section and spur glands, f - column, side and frontal views, g - pollinarium; Rhombodapetelotii: h - fruiting plant, i - flattened tepals and lip, j - lip, without side lobe, k - column, side view and longitudinal section of lip base, l - column, frontal view; R. tokioi: m - flattened flower, without column, n - column, side and frontal views.

Ecology. Mountain forests. 1500 m. Fl.? (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lam Dong), NE India, Malaysia, Sumatra, Sulawesi, Philippines.

Note. The species is reported according to data of Nguyen Thien Tich (l.c.), who found it in Lam Dong province, Langbian mountain. Voucher herbarium specimens were not preserved. Occurrence of species in Vietnam needs confirmation.

Vrydagzynea Blume, 1858, Coll. Orch. Arch. Ind. Jap.: 71. - Vridagzenia Benth. 1881, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 18: 344, orth. var. rej. Lectotype: V. albida (Blume) Blume (Etaeria albida Blume)

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few flowered, rather dense spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, more or less distant or crowded at the stem apex, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, green to purple, sometimes with median whitish stripe, acute. Scape short, leafless, with 1-2 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate, not widely opening. Sepals free, very fleshy, succulent. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood. Lip simple, ovate, fleshy, conical, with spur. Spur saccate to cylindric, with 2 glands at the base. Column short, erect, with short bifid rostellum, wingless or with 2 insignificant wings at front. Anther ovate, obtuse. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigma with 2 separated lobes.

35(1) species. Tropical and subtropical Asia, northeastern Australia to islands of W Pacific.

V. formosana Hayata, 1916, Icon. Pl. Formos. 6: 88. - V. albida auct. non (Blume) Blume, 1858: Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 30; Aver. 1994, Ident. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 34; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam: 61.

Described from Taiwan ("Inter Urai et Agioku …"). Type ("leg. D. Hayata, Mai. 1916") - TI?

Herb 4-20 cm tall. Leaves 4-6, petiolate, ovate, 2-4 cm long, uniform green, acute. Scape sparsely pubescent, ebracteate or with 1-3 acuminate bracts, 2-5 mm long. Rachis densely tomentose, 1-3 cm long, elongate in fruits up to 12 cm, with 3-20 close flowers. Floral bracts narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 6-10 mm long. Ovary 5-8 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, 3-4 mm long, white, later yellowish, base of sepals and spur green to olive-green, later dull orange to red. Sepals sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, very fleshy, 3.5-5 mm long, 1.5-2 mm wide, blunt. Petals lanceolate, of the same length, connivent to dorsal sepal. Lip 3-3.5 mm long, spurred, fleshy and finely papillose along midvein, attenuate to short fleshy blunt tip, lateral sides thin incurved; lip blade being flattened broadly ovate to almost orbicular. Spur broadly-conic, 3.5-4 mm long, with 2 stalked glands. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 8-10 mm long, 3 mm wide. Fig. 41, b; 44, b.

Ecology. Humid forests on any kind of soils, commonly along wet, shady stream and river valleys. 300-1100 m. Fl. January - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ha Tinh, Hoa Binh, Lao Cai, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien - Hue, Tuyen Quang), SE China, Taiwan, Laos.

Studied specimens. Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, sine date, Bong 146 (HN), LX-VN 1767 (LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL 440 (HN,LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, DKH 6678a (HN, LE, MO), HAL 2748 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6738 (HN), HLF6930 (HN); Quang Binh, Bo Trach, HAL 6058 (HN, LE), HAL6148 (HN, LE), HAL 6229 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Quang Ninh, HAL 6316 (HN,LE)d-EXSICCATESOF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0005/HAL 6316; Quang Tri, Da Krong, HLF 6192 (HN); Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 11129 (HN), HAL 6896a (HN, LE); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 221 (HN,LE).

Note. Species closely related to V. albida (Blume) Blume, from which it differs in hairy rachis, floral bracts and ovary, as well as almost rounded to emarginate lip (when flattened) with very thin incurved lateral margins. Fairly common species in northern Vietnam, particularly in wet forests on rocky limestone. Easily overlooked in botanical studies and collecting due to dwarf habit and unattractive appearance of flowers. All seen collections from Vietnam belong to this species, which replaces V. albida (distributed in Myanmar, Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Indonesia, Philippines and New Guinea) in Eastern Indochina, mainland SE China and in Taiwan.

Zeuxine Lindl. 1826, Collect. Bot. App. N 18 (sub "Zeuxina" - orth. var. rej.); id. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 485, nom. cons. Type: Z. strateumatica (L.) Schleichter (Pterygodium sulcatum Roxb.; Z. sulcata (Roxb.) Lindl.).

Terrestrial and lithophytic sympodial herbs with creeping succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, ascending erect leafy floriferous stem and terminal few-to many flowered spike. Leaves few, spirally arranged, petiolate, sheathing at the base, glabrous, convolute, asymmetric, uniformly green or with median whitish stripe, acute, rarely conduplicate, grass-like. Scape leafless, with 2-4 sterile bracts. Flowers small, sessile, resupinate. Sepals free. Petals connivent to median sepal forming hood, lateral sepals spreading. Lip spurless. Hypochile concave to saccate, with various papillae on lateral sides. Epichile reflexed, circular-obovate or 2-lobed, connected to hypochile by a short claw. Column short, erect, with 2 prominent rostellar arms and 2 wings at front. Anther narrowly triangular-ovate, acute. Pollinia 2, sectile, with caudicle and viscidium. Stigma with 2, small, convex, separated lobes.

70(7) species. Africa, tropical and subtropical Asia, Indonesia, Philippines, Australia, New Guinea, Pacific Islands to Samoa.

 
Key to species

1. Leaves linear, conduplicate, grass-like
 
........................................................................... 1. Z. strateumatica
- Leaves lanceolate to almost circular, plicate
 
..................................................................................................... 2
2. Epichile entire, circular or obcordate
 
.............................................................................2. Z. goodyeroides
- Epichile distinctly 2-lobed
 
..................................................................................................... 3
3. Epichile with divergent lobes 6-8 mm long; sepals 7-8 mm long
 
..................................................................................... 3. Z. grandis
- Epichile with spreading lobes less than 3 mm long; sepals less than 6 mm long
 
..................................................................................................... 4
4. Column with large, protruding quadrate or triangular flat vertical wings on front; petals very oblique, suddenly narrowing toward the obtuse apex
 
..................................................................................... 4. Z. nervosa
- Column with insignificant, hardly visible wings on front; petals not much oblique narrowing to the apex
 
...................................................................................................... 5
5. Lip white, 3-4 mm long; epichile lobes rectangular, about twice as long as wide
 
................................................................................... 5. Z. parvifolia
- Lip yellow, 2-3 mm long; epichile lobes squarish to obovate, less than twice as long aswide
 
......................................................................................... 6. Z. flava

1. Z. strateumatica (L.) Schleichter, 1911, Bot. Jahrb. 45: 394; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114:37;Aver. 1994, Identif.GuideVietnam. Orch.:38;Aver.etAveryanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Orchis strateumаtica L. 1753, Sp. Pl.:943. - Z. bonii Gagnep. 1931, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2. ser. 3: 326. - Z. evrardii Gagnep. 1931, l.c.: 326.

Described from Sri Lanka ("in Zeylonа"). Type ("Hermann s.n.") - BM.

Stem erect, slender, to 20 cm tall, leafy. Leaves erect, conduplicate, linear, grass-like, acute, to 6 cm long. Inflorescence many-flowered cylindric dense spike 1- 4 cm long. Ovary glabrous, 5-7 mm long. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, reddish-yellow, 4-10 mm long. Sepals white, sub similar, ovate, obtuse, 3-4 mm long, glabrous. Petals of the same length, white, oblique narrowly-obovate, obtuse. Lip shortly saccate, with 2 glands, 3-3.5 mm long; claw short, fleshy, papillose and grooved. Epichile small, transversely oblong-reniform, papillose, blunt, yellow-green. Column short, 1.5-2 mm tall. Fig. 41, c-f.

Ecology. Wet secondary grasslands, open wet places along stream and river valleys. 50-1500 m. Fl. January - February. Very rare (DD).

Distribution. Vietnam (Cao Bang, Ha Noi, Ha Tinh, Lam Dong, Nam Dinh, Nghe An, Ninh Binh, Thanh Hoa). Tropical and subtropical Asia, Japan, Taiwan, Philippines, Indonesia to New Guinea.

Studied specimens. Cao Bang; Ha Noi, Kien-Khe, mont Den; Ha Son Binh, Rocher de Notre Dame, riviere Noire; Lam Dong, Dalat, Camly; Lang-bian; Nghe Tinh; Thanh Hoa; Tonkin, delta du Fleuve Rouge; Tonkin, Mong-hаo, Fleuve Rouge.

Note. Very variable and widespread species escaped and naturalized in Florida and Cuba. Recently it, probably, become much rarer as did not been collected in Vietnam during last 50 years.

2. Z. goodyeroides Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 486.- Z. bidupensis Aver. 2006, Rheedea, 16, 1: 12, fig. 7g, h & 9.

Described from NE India ("India, Assam..."). Type ("Griffith 7") - K.

Terrestrial herb. Stem 15-20 cm tall with 4-6 leaves. Petiole and sheath 5-10 mm long; leaf blade ovate to narrowly-ovate, acute, 2-4 cm long, dark velvety green to green-brown, sometimes with median whitish stripe. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis lax flowered, commonly with 3-10 flowers. Floral bracts dull reddish-brown, triangular-ovate, acuminate, glabrous, erose-ciliate along the margin, 4-7 mm long, 2-3 mm wide. Ovary dark olive-green, cylindric, glabrous, 8-10 mm long. Flowers odorless. Sepals olive-brown, glabrous, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate, acute, 5.5-6 mm long; dorsal sepal wider. Petals white, oblique, falcate, rising from narrow base to oblique broad obtuse apical part, 5-5.5 mm long. Lip 4-4.5 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide. Hypochile yellowish, ovate, concave, 2.5-3 mm long, 2.5-3 mm wide, with 2 swollen nerves and 2 hooked or indistinctly T-shaped glands inside; margins incurved, fleshy, coming apically into 2 papillose swellings. Epichile white, entire, circular or obcordate, 1-1.2 mm long, 1.2-1.4 mm wide, with finely crenulate margin. Column 2.5-3 mm tall, with 2 short triangular acute wings at front and 2 long narrow falcate apical rostellum arms. Anther narrowly-ovate, acuminate, 2.2-2.5 mm long. Pollinia massulae brown, triangular, 0.1 mm across. Fig. 41, g-k; 44, c.

Ecology. Wet broad-leaved and coniferous closed forests on silicate soils. 1500-1900 m. Fl. November - January. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Lai Chau, Lam Dong), Bhutan, NE India, Myanmar, S China.

Studied specimens. Lai Chau, Phong Tho, HAL 10670 (HN, LE), HAL 10672 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Gia Rich mt., HLF 5319 (HN, LE).

3. Z. grandis Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32: 90. - Z. affinis auct. non (Lindl.) Benth. ex Hook. f.:Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch.Viet.: 61.

Described from Thailand ("Omkoi Road at km 13"). Type ("GT 7730") - C.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 8-25 cm tall with 2-6 leaves, usually withered at the time of flowering. Leaves petiolate; narrowly-ovate, 1.5-4 cm long, uniform dull green, acute. Scape and rachis densely pubescent, rachis to 6 cm long, with 1-10 lax flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, pubescent, 6-12 mm long. Ovary pubescent, 5-9 mm long. Sepals olive-green to light pinkish, pubescent outside, sub-similar, ovate, 7-8 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length or longer, white, oblique narrowly-obovate to oblong-spathulate, roundish at the apex. Lipwhite,withlightyellow-brownishcentralspoton epichile,10-13mmlong.Hypochile small, saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes flat, at an acute angle to the axis, convergent, oblique-obovate, each 6-8 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm wide. Column short, without frontal wings. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 8- 12 mm long, 2-3 mm wide. Fig. 41, l, m; 44, d.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on shale, usually along rocky stream slopes. 1000-1200 m. Fl. February - March. Rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Quang Tri), Thailand, Hainan.

Studied specimens. Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, Sa Mui pass, HLF 5755a (HN, LE), HLF 6278 (HN, LE); d-EXSICCATES OF VIETNAMESE FLORA 0069/HLF6278.

4. Z. nervosa (Wall. ex Lindl.) Benth. ex Clarke, 1889, Journ. Linn. Soc. London (Bot.) 25: 73; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 37; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 38; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Monochilus nervosum Wall. ex Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 487.

Described from E India ("India orientali"). Type ("Wallich 7381 А")- K?

Terrestrial herb. Stem 10-25 cm tall with 3-5 leaves. Leaves petiolate; petiole and sheath 0.5-1.5 cm long; leaf blade ovate to narrowly-ovate, 2-6 cm long, pure dull green, often with wide median whitish stripe, acute. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis 1-6 cm long, with 3-14 laxy flowers. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, 5-10 mm long. Ovary sparsely hairy, 5-10 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate, 3.5-5.5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length, white, oblique, broadly lunate, attenuate at the apex. Lip white, with 2 dull green to brown spots on epichile, 4.5-6 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with (1)2-3 close parallel fat calluses on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, rectangular to obovate. Column short, with 2 large rectangular to triangular acute wings at front. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 9-12 mm long, 3.5-4.5 mm wide. Fig. 41, n, o; 44, e.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 200-1500 m. Fl. January - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces), Bhutan, Nepal, India, S China, Thailand, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Cuc Phuong national park, NTH 3890 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Hoang Su Phi, HAL 6619 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quan Ba, DKH 5008 (HN, LE, MO); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong national park, LX-VN 1810 (HN, LE); Ha Tinh, Huong Son, HAL 5215a (HN, LE); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL 393 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2001 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Quy Chau, HLF 3095 (HN, LE); Nghe An, Tuong Duong, HLF 6602 (HN, LE); Quang Binh, Minh Hoa, HAL 5868 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7357 (HN, LE, MO); Son La, Yen Chau, DKH 7225 (HN, LE, MO); Tuyen Quang, Na Hang, HAL 181 (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species in Vietnam, which easily survives in wet secondary forests, particularly with bamboo.

5. Z. parvifolia (Ridl.) Seidenf. 1978, Dansk Bot. Ark. 32, 2: 82; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 37; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 37; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 61. - Hetaeria parvifolia Ridl. 1903, Journ. Straits Branch Roy. As. Soc. 39: 87. - Z. tonkinensis Gagnep. 1931, Bull. Mus. Natl. Hist. Nat. 2. s. 3, 7: 328.

Described from Malacca Peninsula ("Penins. Mal." - sec. Ind. Kew.). Type ("Ridley s.n.") - K.

Terrestrial herb. Stem 10-30 cm tall with 3-5 leaves. Leaves shortly petiolate, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 1.5-4.5 cm long, uniform dull green, or sometimes with median whitish stripe, acute. Scape and rachis sparsely pubescent, rachis 1-8 cm long, few-to many flowered. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, 5-10 mm long. Ovary sparsely pubescent or glabrous, 4-8 mm long. Sepals light greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 3-4.5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals of the same length, white, oblique-oblong, roundish at the apex. Lip 3- 4mmlong,white,withyellowishtoyellowish-brownspoton epichile.Hypochile saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, rectangular, about twice as long as wide. Column short, with 2 narrow insignificant wings at front. Fig. 41, p; 44, f.
 
Fig. 41. Rhomboda lanceolata
 
Fig. 41. Rhomboda lanceolata: a - flower and floral bract; Vrydagzynea formosana: b - flattened flower and longitudinal section of spur; Zeuxine strateumatica: c - flowering plant, d - flower, e - flattened sepals and petals, f - column and lip, side view; Z. goodyeroides: g - flowering plant, h - flattened tepals and lip, i - column, frontal view, j - anther, ventral view, k - ovary and floral bract; Z. grandis: i - flattened tepals and lip, m - column, frontal view; Z. nervosa: n - flattened tepals and lip, o - column, side and frontal views; Z. parvifolia: p - column, flattened tepals and lip.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 300-1800 m. Fl. December - April. Not rare (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces), Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Malacca Peninsula, Ryukyu Islands, Taiwan, Philippines.

Studied specimens. Bavi mt., Tonkin, Balansa 2002 (P); Dak Nong, Dak Glong, HLF 5503a (HN, LE); Gia Lai - Kontum, Chu Pa, LX-VN 2531 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Hoang Su Phi, HAL 6620 (HN, LE); Hoa Binh prov., Da Bac, HAL 556 (HN, LE); Kon Tum, Dak Gley, VH 2281 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Dalat, VH 2523 (HN, LE); Lam Dong, Lac Duong, Bi Dup mt, VH 3236 (HN, LE); Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6790 (HN, LE); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2265 (HN,LE), DKH 6740 (HN, LE, MO); Thanh Hoa, Ba Thuoc, HAL 3310a (HN, LE); Thua Thien - Hue, Nam Dong, HAL 6896b (HN, LE).

Note. Widespread and common species in Vietnam, which easily survives in wet secondary forests, particularly with bamboo.

6. Z. flava (Wall. ex Lindl.) Trimen, 1885, Syst. Cat. Fl. Pl. Ceylon: 90. - Monochilus flavus Wall. ex Lindl. 1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl.: 487.

Described from Nepal. Type ("Wallich, Wall. Cat. 7380A") - K.

Terrestrial and lithophytic herb. Stem 15-45 cm tall with 5-8 leaves. Leaves petiolate; ovate to narrowly-ovate, 4-8 cm long, uniform light green, acute. Scape and rachis pubescent, rachis to 22 cm long, many flowered. Floral bracts triangular-ovate, acuminate, sparsely pubescent, 5-11 mm long. Ovary sparsely pubescent to sub-glabrous, 6-10 mm long. Flowers odorless. Sepals dull greenish-brown, sub-similar, ovate to narrowly-ovate, 3.5-4 mm long, concave, obtuse, sparsely pubescent to glabrous, lateral sepals shorter. Petals of the same length, light greenish, oblique narrowly-obovate to oblong-lanceolate, obtuse. Lip yellow, 2-3 mm long. Hypochile saccate, with 1 small gland on each lateral side. Epichile 2-lobed, lobes spreading, oblong-obovate, 0.8-1.2 mm long. Column short, with 2 narrow, fat, insignificant wings at front. Fruit erect elliptic capsule, 6-9 mm long, 2-3 mm wide. Fig. 42, a, b; 44, g.

Ecology. Wet primary and secondary closed forests, often with bamboo, on any soils. 500-1500 m. Fl. February - April. Rare (VU).

Distribution. Vietnam (Ninh Thuan, Quang Tri, Son La), Bhutan, Nepal, N India, Myanmar, Thailand.

Studied specimens. Ninh Thuan, Ninh Hai, Nui Chua mt, HLF 4445 (HN, LE), HLF 4538 (HN, LE); Quang Tri, Huong Hoa, Sa Mui pass, HLF 5939 (HN, LE); Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7515 (HN, LE, MO).

Zeuxinella Aver. in Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 96. Type: Z. vietnamica (Aver.) Aver. (Zeuxine vietnamica Aver.)

Terrestrial creeping sympodial herb with succulent rhizome rooting at nodes, short ascending leafy stem and erect thin terminal leafless inflorescence 10-18 cm tall. Leaves 3-5, petiolate. Petiole and sheath 0.5-1 cm long. Leaf blade velvety carbon-black above, pale dull purple below, broadly ovate to orbicular, 1.5-3 cm long, shortly apiculate. Scape hairy, with 3-4 acuminate bracts; rachis pubescent, 1-4 cm long, with 3-8 laxy sessile flowers. Floral bracts pubescent, cuneate, acuminate, 4-6 by 1-1.5 mm. Ovary densely glandular hairy, 5-7 mm long. Flowers hardly opening, odorless, resupinate, 3-5.5 mm long. Sepals dull greenish to greenish-brown, sub-similar, narrowly-ovate to ovate, 3-5 mm long, concave, obtuse. Petals white, narrowly ovate, incurved, 3-5 mm long, connivent to dorsal sepal forming hood. Lip yellow, spurred, fleshy, 3-lobed, 3 mm long. Hypochile boat-shaped; sidelobes narrowly ovate, rising and incurved. Epichile reflexed, 3-lobulate, with rounded-triangular subequal lobules, with 4 cushions on the disk. Spur straight, sac-like, 2.5-3 by 2 mm, with 1 cylindric gland on each lateral side. Column small, with 2 insignificant frontal wings, 2 narrow rostellar arms and 2 stigmas. Fig. 42, c-h; 44, h.

Monotypic genus endemic to northern Vietnam.

Z. vietnamica (Aver.) Aver. 2003, in Aver. et Averyanova, Updated Checkl. Orch. Vietnam: 61, 96, fig. 11. - Zeuxine vietnamica Aver. 1988, Bot. Journ. (Leningrad) 73, 3: 424; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 38.

Described from northern Vietnam ("Prov. Ha Nam Ninh. Cuc Phuong, May bac"). Type ("2 May 1985 LX-VN 1809/52") - HN (holotype), LE (isotype).

Ecology. Primary and secondary broad-leaved forests, often with bamboo, on rocky limestone. 50-400 m. Fl. March - May. Very rare (EN).

Distribution. Vietnam (Bac Kan, Ninh Binh, Quang Ninh).

Studied specimens. Bac Kan, Ba Be national park, HLF 638 (HN, LE); Ha Nam Ninh, Cuc Phuong, NTH 3891 (HN, LE); Quang Ninh, Ha Long Bay, NTH 5649 (HN, LE).

Notes. Very rare relictual element of lowland indigenous limestone floras of northern Vietnam. The only representative of monotypic strictly endemic genus that is one of the best examples of strict endemism at the genus level. Needs special attention for protection.

Subtrib. 3.2.2. Spiranthinae Lindl.
1840, Gen. Sp. Orch. Pl. : 441, 462 (sub "Spiranthidae").

Type: Spiranthes L.C. Rich.
28(1) genera and 275(1) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate regions of all continents except Africa, with highest diversity in tropical America.

Spiranthes L.C. Rich. 1817, Orch. Europ. Annot.: 20, nom. cons.

Type: S. spiralis (L.) K. Koch (Ophrys spiralis L.), type cons.

Terrestrial herbs with few fleshy fasciculate root tuberoids, rosulate sessile conduplicate leaves and erect inflorescence bearing terminal many-flowered, secund, spirally twisted, dense spike. Flowers sessile, resupinate, not widely opening. Sepals free, sub-similar; median sepal erect, lateral sepals spreading, oblique at the base. Petals connivent to sepal forming hood. Lip sessile or shortly claved, entire or lobed, undulate along margin, enveloping column at the base. Column short, erect, with bifid rostellum and 1 convex, entire stigma at front; clinandrium with prominent margins. Anther erect, dorsal. Pollinia 2, mealy, with caudicle and viscidium.

 
Fig. 42. Zeuxine flava
 
Fig. 42. Zeuxine flava: a - flattened tepals and lip, b - column, frontal view; Zeuxinella vietnamica: c - flowering plant, d - ovary, floral bract and flower, e - flattened tepals and lip, f - lip, side view, g - gland inside spur, h - column, view from above (with removed operculum) and frontal view; Spiranthes sinensis: i - flowering plants, j - flower, k - flattened tepals and lip, l - flattened median sepal and petals, m - flattened lip, n - ovary, column and lip, side view, o - column, side view, p - column, view from above and frontal view, q - fruit, r - floral bract.

40(1) species. Tropical, subtropical and temperate areas of the world except tropical and southern Africa.

1. S. sinensis (Pers.) Ames, 1908, Orch. 2: 53; Seidenf. 1992, Opera Bot. 114: 25; Aver. 1994, Identif. Guide Vietnam. Orch.: 48; Aver. et Averyanova, 2003, Updated Checklist Orch. Viet.: 56. - Neottia sinensis Pers. 1807, Syn. Pl. 2: 511. - Aristotelea spiralis Lour. 1790, Fl. Cochinchin.: 522. - N. australis R. Br. 1810, Prodr.: 319. - N. amoena M. Bieb. 1819, Fl. Taur.-Caucas. 3: 606. - S. australis(R. Br.) Lindl. 1824, Bot. Reg. 10: tab. 823. - S. amoena (M.Bieb.) Spreng. 1826, Syst. Veg. 3: 708. - S. spiralis (Lour.) Makino, 1926, Journ. Jap. Bot. 3: 25, nom. illeg.

Described from southern China ("prope Gantonem Sinarum"). Type ("Loureiro s.n.")- P.

Herb 8-40 cm tall with 3-10 linear-lanceolate to broadly-lanceolate, glossy green, acute leaves, 2-12 cm long, 3-8 mm wide. Scape glandular hairy, with 2-4 bracts. Rachis 4-14 cm. Floral bracts lanceolate, acuminate, glandular hairy, 4-7 mm long. Ovary 2-4 mm long. Flowers pink-purple to white. Sepals and petals sub-similar, narrowly ovate to lanceolate, 3-4 mm long, 1-1.5 mm wide, obtuse, petals slightly smaller. Lip simple, oblong, longitudinally concave, 3.5-4.5 mm long, 2-3 mm wide, plicate along margin, with 2 large spherical glands at the base. Column 2-3 mm tall, with 2 erect, acute rostellar arms. Fruit ovate, glandular pubescent capsule, 6-7 mm long, 3 mm broad. Fig. 42, i-r; 44, i.

Ecology. Secondary short-tall grasslands, pastures, road-cuts, old rice field in agricultural areas, open grassy swamps along stream and river valleys, usually on wet alluvial soils. 5-2000 m. Fl. February - April. Very common (LR).

Distribution. Vietnam (probably all provinces). Widespread in temperate, subtropical and tropical Asia to Australia, New Zeeland, Tasmania and south-west Pacific Islands.

Studied specimens. Annam, sine loc., Eberhardt s.n. (P); Bac Kan, Ngan Son, CBL 1258 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Bao Lac, CBL 1373 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Nguyen Binh, CBL 131 (HN, LE); Cao Bang, Tien Ha, sine coll. (P); Cochimchina s.n., Loureiro (P);Dalat,Boden, Kloss s.n. (BM); Ha Giang, Bac Me, HAL 6607 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Dong Van, CBL 1772 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Quang Ba, DKH 4832 (HN, LE); Ha Giang, Yen Minh, CBL 1979 (HN); Hanoi, BatBac, Balansa; Hanoi, Kien Khe, Bon; Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL 285 (HN); Hoa Binh, Da Bac, HAL 554 (HN); Ja Lao Mahay, Pierre s.n. (P); Kon Tum, Kon Plong, DKH 4750 (HN, LE); Kontum, Kon Plong, Mang La, VH 5456 (HN); Kontum, Ngoc Linh mt., VH10 (HN, LE); Lac Duong, Langbian, sine coll.; Lang Son, Bac Son, HAL 6791 (HN, LE); Langbian, Andre; Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL 2448 (HN); Lao Cai, Van Ban, HAL2845 (HN, LE); Ninh Binh, Cuc Phuong national park, 20 Feb. 1971, Quynh 41, CPNP 5120 (HN); Pagode de Bamly, Tonkin, Petelot; QuangYen, d’Alleizette; Santay, Balansa; Son La, Moc Chau, DKH 7449 (HN); Thai Nguyen, Eberhardt; Tonkin delta, Eberhard drawing, 218; Tonkin, sine loc., Bon; Tu Phap, Balansa.

Note. Very common, variable and widespread weedy species, often spreading into secondary habitats on agricultural lands. Used in traditional oriental medicine.

 
Fig. 43. Ludisia discolor
 
Fig. 43. Ludisia discolor: a (HLF 6570), b (HAL 6350), c (HAL 1340, HAL 1655 and HAL 5865); Odontochilus saprophyticus: d (HAL 8194); O. elwesii: e (HAL 1720); O. umbrosus: f (HLF 5611a); O. inabai: g (HAL 9002); Orchipedum echinatum: h (HLF1296, type); Rhomboda petelotii: i (NTH 3459).
Fig. 44. Rhombodatokioi
 
Fig. 44. Rhombodatokioi: a (LX-VN s.n., 1985); Vrydagzynea formosana: b (HAL 6148); Zeuxine goodyeroides: c (HAL 10672); Z. grandis: d (HLF 6278); Z. nervosa: e (Averyanov, HAL s.n., 2004); Z. parvifolia: f (HAL 6620). Z. flava: g (HLF 5939); Zeuxinellavietnamica: h (HLF 638); Spiranthes sinensis: i (HAL 11131a).

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